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U.S. History Ch. 23 An Era of Social Change 1960-1975
Terms in this set (34)
largest group of Latinos in US, most live in southwest and Cali. Many descendants of the nearly 100,000 who were in the lands that were ceded by Mexico to the U.S. in 1848 after the Mexican War. About 1 million more came in the early 1900's to escape the revolution in Mexico.
(temporary workers) Mexicans that came to U.S. in the 1940's and 50's. In recent decades Mexicans have come to the U.S. to work for better paying jobs.
Almost 1 million now live in the U.S. and about a half million of those live in New York City. They started coming to America after the U.S. took control of Puerto Rico in 1898 after the Spanish-American War.
A large number of Cubans came to the U.S. after the communist, under Castro, took control of the country in 1959. Most moved to Miami, New York City, and the state of New Jersey.
Most Latino's lived in Barrios
(Spanish speaking neighborhoods) - found in major cities of the southwest and Cali. Thousands of Latinos from other countries came to the US in the 1960's to escape civil wars and poverty. They have faced discrimination in jobs and housing.
The United Farm Workers (UFW) -
created by Caesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta. Create the United Farm Workers Union to help farm workers out west who were mainly Latino, to better pay and working conditions. Will use the boycott and non-violent protests to get growers, supermarkets, and shoppers, better wages, prices, and benefits.
Brown Power Movement-
Started in the 1960's to get changes in America. Bilingual Education Act was a law that provided funds for schools to develop bilingual and cultural heritage programs for non-English speaking children.
Name used by Mexican-Americans it is a short version of Mexicanos. This was a way to express their pride in their ethnic heritage.
The Brown Beret-
Formed by David Sanchez in the 1960's as a community activists group. Over 15,000 Chicano students walked out of classes demanding smaller classes, more Chicano teachers, and principals.
La Raza Unida (The People United) -
A Latino political movement started in 1970 by a Texan Jose Angel Gutierrez. They won political positions in 5 states, mainly at the local levels.
The Federal Alliance of Land Grants-
A confrontational organization started in 1963 by former evangelical preacher Reis Tijerina. This organization wanted the U.S. government to help reclaim lands that were taken from Mexican landholders in the 19th century.
In 1954 president Eisenhower tried to move Native-Americans from poor isolated reservation lands to urban areas. The plan will fail. Most that moved to the urban areas still live there and are still poor.
The Declaration of Indian Purpose 1961-
representatives from 61 Native-American groups met in Chicago. They stressed the determination of Native-Americans to choose their own way of life. They wanted the Termination Policy to be ended and they wanted to create economic opportunities for Native-Americans on their reservations.
The National Council on Indian Opportunity 1968-
President Johnson established it to ensure programs to reflect the needs and desires of the Indian people.
The American-Indian Movement (AIM) -
A militant Native-American rights organization started in 1968. It was largely a self-defense group against police brutality and reforms. They tried to fight for treaty rights, better living conditions, job opportunities, and autonomy on reservation lands.
AIM takeover of Alcatraz
In 1969 AIM will take control of the Island of Alcatraz in San Francisco Bay. They were reclaiming Native-American lands that the government had abandoned. They will stay on the island until 1971 as a protest. It will bring national attention to Native-American problems.
Trail of Broken Treaties
1972 March on Washington D.C. led by AIM leader Russell Means to protest the government's treaty violations throughout U.S. history. Marchers wanted gov to restore 110 million acres of land back to Native-Americans. Wanted to abolish the Bureau of Indian affairs which they thought was corrupt.
Wounded Knee Revisited 1973-
Members of AIM's seize Wounded Knee South Dakota, site of Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Protesting tribal leadership and gov policies. A standoff will end when a shootout which the FBI starts and 2 AIM members are killed and others were wounded. The government promised to reexamine Native-American treaty rights.
The theory behind the women's movement that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men.
writes the book "The Feminine Mystique" which captured the discontent that most women were feeling. It became a best seller in the 60's. This book will help to galvanize women across the country.
The Women's Liberation Movement or Women's Lib-
A movement for women to achieve equal status with men in the 60's and 70's.
Civil Rights Act 1964-
Prohibited discrimination based on gender, race, religion, or national origin. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to handle discrimination cases.
The National Organization for Women(NOW)-
organization to confront actions that prevent women from enjoying equal opportunity. Pushed for child care facilities so women could pursue jobs and education. Got sex segregated job ads declared illegal and employers could no longer refuse jobs based on gender.
The New York Radical Women-
This was a militant women's organization. They will demonstrate at the Miss America Pageant and will crown a sheep. They will also symbolically burn bras, girdles, wigs, and other "women's garbage" in a "Freedom Trash Can".
1972, will start a new women's magazine called "Ms." It was designed to treat contemporary issues from a feminist perspective.
Roe v. Wade 1973-
The Supreme Court rules that women do have the right to choose an abortion during the first 3 months of a pregnancy. This is still very controversial today.
The Equal rights Amendment (ERA) 1972-
Guarantee men and women the same rights and protection under the law.
Anti- ERA movement
Phyllis Schlafly thought the ERA would destroy family values, end husband's responsibility to provide for the family, create same sex marriages, drafting women into the military. This group will focus on social, cultural, and moral problems. Eventually create the "New Right", helped get conservative Ronald Reagan elected President in 1980.
The Counterculture Movement-
mainly white middle class college youths who had grown disillusioned with the Vietnam War and injustices in America in the 1960's. Turn their back on parent's traditional American life style. Create new society based on peace and love.
were members of the counter culture. They shared the same beliefs as the new left movement. They were against the materialism, technology and the war. They were influenced by the non-conformist of the beat movement of the 1950's.
Harvard Professor of Psychology. Unofficial leader of the counter culture. Famous saying "Turn on, Tune In, and Drop out". Thousands of idealistic youth of the 1960's began to leave school, work, and home to create their idyllic community of peace, love, and harmony.
The Hippie Culture- The Age of Aquarius.
Marked by rock-n-roll music, outrageous clothing, sexual experimentation, and the use of illegal drugs such as marijuana and L.S.D. Turned to eastern religion. Conservative Americans saw all this as an act of disrespect. Haight-Ashbury became the Hippie capital.
The end of Hippie culture
1970. Most communes fell apart because bills had to be paid and people had to share in work responsibilities but were not doing it. Many members became addicted to drugs or had to turn to welfare and food stamps.
The art of the counter culture of the 1960's. It was characterized by bright, simple, commercial looking images of everyday life. Andy Warhol was the best known artist.
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