Dizziness, nausea, and disorientation may result if the information from the eyes conflicts a little too much with that from the vestibular organs, according to the _________ of motion sickness. a. sensory conflict theory b. motor conflict theory c. vestibular conflict theory d. semicircular canal conflict theory
a. sensory conflict theory
Perception is the ___________. a. process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion b. action of physical stimuli on receptors leading to sensations c. interpretation of memory based on selective attention d. act of selective attention from sensory storage
a. process by which people take all the sensations they experience at any given moment and interpret them in some meaningful fashion
The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as _____________. a. size constancy b. shape constancy c. brightness constancy d. color constancy
a. size constancy
A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight, even though there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual constancy is called _________. a. size constancy b. shape constancy c. brightness constancy d. color constancy
c. brightness constancy
Similarity is the tendency to perceive __________. a. objects, or figures, on some background b. things that look similar as being part of the same group c. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping d. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
b. things that look similar as being part of the same group
Proximity is the tendency _________________. a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background b. to complete figures that are incomplete c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping
The tendency to perceive objects, or figures, on some background is known as ___________. a. figure-ground relationships b. closure c. similarity d. proximity
a. figure-ground relationships
Closure is the tendency _________________. a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background b. to complete figures that are incomplete c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
b. to complete figures that are incomplete
Continuity is the tendency _________________. a. to perceive objects, or figures, on some background b. to complete figures that are incomplete c. to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
d. to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Contiguity is the tendency to perceive _________. a. objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping b. things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern c. two things that happen close together in time as being related d. objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group
c. two things that happen close together in time as being related
An illusion ________________. a. is the same thing as a vision b. is due to the action of the rods versus the cones in the retina c. is a perception that does not correspond to reality d. corresponds directly to something that you dreamed
c. is a perception that does not correspond to reality
__________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. a. Learning b. Adaptation c. Memory enhancement d. Muscle memory
Learning is said to be a relatively permanent change in behavior because ________. a. it is thought that learning changes the nerve fiber patterns in your muscles b. once you learn something, you will never fail to remember it or carry out the correct action c. it is thought that when learning occurs some part of the brain physically changes d. memory processes, unlike learning processes, are not permanent
c. it is thought that when learning occurs some part of the brain physically changes
As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor's coat, she started to cry. This is an example of _______________. a. instrumental learning b. observational learning c. classical conditioning d. habituation
c. classical conditioning
Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov's analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as ________. a. an unconditioned response b. a voluntary response c. a conditioned response d. a digestive reflux
a. an unconditioned response
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called ________________. a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. memory linkage d. adaptation
a. classical conditioning
The abbreviation UCR stands for _____________. a. unconditional reinforcement b. uniform conditioned rule c. unconditional retention d. unconditioned response
d. unconditioned response
Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the______ is the unconditioned stimulus. a. presence of Alan near the aquarium b. fish swimming to the top c. aquarium light d. fish food
d. fish food
Miranda notices that her cat salivates as soon as her cat hears the sound of the electric can opener. In this example, the sound of the can opener is the ______________. a. primary stimulus b. positive reinforcer c. conditioned stimulus d. secondary reinforcer
c. conditioned stimulus
The abbreviation CS stands for _____________. a. conditioned stimulus b. correlated stimulus c. conventional structure d. conditional situation
a. conditioned stimulus
You decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a bell. You give the dog a biscuit, and then a second later you ring the bell. You do this several times, but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because ______. a. the bell was not a distinctive sound b. the bell should have been sounded before the dog ate the biscuit c. you should have had a longer interval between the bell and the biscuit d. Pavlov found that the CS and UCS must be only seconds apart in order to condition salivation
b. the bell should have been sounded before the dog ate the biscuit
After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not _________ had occurred. a. behavior modification b. stimulus discrimination c. extinction d. stimulus generalization
d. stimulus generalization
Which of the following processes occur in both operant conditioning and classical conditioning? a. extinction b. spontaneous recovery c. generalization d. all of these
d. all of these
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called ___________________. a. acquisition b. testing c. extinction d. spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called ______. a. counterconditioning b. instinctive drift c. spontaneous recovery d. stimulus discrimination
c. spontaneous recovery
The learning of phobias is a very good example of which certain type of classical conditioning? a. instinctive drift b. innate learning c. conditioned taste aversion d. conditioned emotional response
d. conditioned emotional response
It is even possible to become classically conditioned by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus in a process called ________________. a. vicarious conditioning b. conditioned emotional responses c. stimulus generalization d. higher-order conditioning
a. vicarious conditioning
28. An important example of conditioned taste aversions might be ____________. a. chemotherapy patients losing their appetites for food served around the same time they had their treatments b. farmers leaving out sheep meat laced with a nauseating substance for coyotes to find in hopes of teaching them not to eat sheep c. Both of these are examples of taste aversions. d. Neither of these are examples of conditioned taste aversions.
c. Both of these are examples of taste aversions.
29. Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called __________. a. biological preparedness b. inherited conditioned dispositions c. long-term spontaneous recovery d. single repetition conditioning
a. biological preparedness
30. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called __________________. a. operant conditioning b. classical conditioning c. effective based learning d. spontaneous recovery
a. operant conditioning
31. Thorndike was known for his work with ______. a. a Skinner box b. a puzzle box c. modeling d. monkeys
b. a puzzle box
32. Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior? a. a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher's approval for her behavior b. a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented d. a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior
c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented
33. "If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated." This is a statement of ________________. a. the law of positive reinforcement b. Rescorla's cognitive perspective c. Thorndike's Law of Effect d. Garcia's conditional emotional response
c. Thorndike's Law of Effect
34. A reinforcer is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior. a. motivates; stimulates b. weakens; strengthens c. inhibits; motivates d. strengthens; weakens
d. strengthens; weakens
35. A _____________________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic, biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch. a. primary b. negative c. positive d. secondary
36. ________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer. a. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student b. A kiss; money c. Water; food d. A gold star; cupcake
a. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student
37. Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again? a. if it is a primary reinforcer b. if it is a positive reinforcer c. if it is a negative reinforcer d. regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur.
d. regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur.
38. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ___________ and, thus, ________ the probability of a response. a. removed; increases b. removed; decreases c. presented; increases d. presented; decreases
a. removed; increases
39. What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response? a. punishment b. positive reinforcement c. negative reinforcement d. positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
40. When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as __________. a. punishment by application b. punishment by removal c. negative reinforcement d. punishing reinforcement
b. punishment by removal
41. Which of the following statements is true regarding punishment? a. The effect of punishment is often temporary. b. Severe punishment creates fear and anxiety. c. Punishment is the opposite of reinforcement. d. All of these statements are true.
d. All of these statements are true.
42. Why does fear caused by punishment make the punishment ineffective in changing behavior? a. Fear leads the child to forget the behavior that was punished. b. Fear produces resentment that makes the child rebellious and disobedient. c. Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment. d. None of these.
c. Fear interferes with the child's ability to learn from the punishment.
43. Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy? a. Olivia is correctly applying Skinnerian principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog's behavior. b. Olivia is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog's behavior. c. Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her. d. Olivia's parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is "spare the rod, spoil the child."
c. Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.
44. Mary's parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of ____________. a. negative reinforcement b. punishment c. extinction d. shaping
45. What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parents give her $10 every time she accumulates six As on her tests? a. gradual reinforcement b. sporadic reinforcement c. continuous reinforcement d. partial reinforcement
d. partial reinforcement
46. Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning? a. Neither partial nor continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist for long periods of time. b. Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement. c. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement. d. Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time.
c. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.
47. When the number of responses is important to a schedule of reinforcement, that schedule is called a _____________ schedule. a. ratio b. interval c. conditioned d. time-delayed
48. A school issues tokens to the children for good behavior. This issue of a token is an example of ___________. a. classical conditioning b. instinctive drift c. primary reinforcement d. behavior modification
d. behavior modification
In order to get her 2nd grade students to memorize the poems written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using (a) __________ to modify the children's behaviors. a. token economy b. applied behavior analysis c. negative reinforcement d. classical conditioning.
a. token economy
50. Which of the following statements is true about behavior modification? a. It involves the process of shaping. b. It is useful only for teaching autistic children. c. It is different from behavior modification. d. It cannot be used with animals.
a. It involves the process of shaping.
51. The "aha!" experience is known as ________________. a. latent learning b. insight learning c. thoughtful learning d. serial enumeration
b. insight learning
A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ____________. a. learned helplessness b. avoidance learning c. aversive conditioning d. vicarious learning
a. learned helplessness
53. Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act? a. insight learning b. operant conditioning c. classical conditioning d. observational learning
d. observational learning
Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are _________. a. receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage b. the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response c. bottom-up processing, selective attention, and top-down processing d. acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery
a. receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage
____________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. a. Classical conditioning b. Operant conditioning c. Learning d. Memory
56. Shaquin finished his term paper and handed it in. As he walked out of the classroom, he realized that there were a few more things he should have included in the paper. Shaquin's problem is the __________ component of memory. a. encoding b. storage c. retrieval d. retention
57. The first step in the memory process is _____________ information in a form that the memory system can use. a. encoding b. storing c. retrieving d. evaluating
58. _____________ is retention of memory for some period of time. a. Encoding b. Storage c. Retrieval d. Evaluation
59. Which of the following statements is true about retrieval? a. It is a process that allows an extinguished CR to recover. b. It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness. c. It is a process of getting information from the sensory receptors to the brain. d. It is the reason that conditioned taste aversions last so long.
b. It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.
60. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ______ model of memory. a. information processing b. top-down storage c. classical conditioning d. Tolman's cognitive
a. information processing
61. According to the levels-of-processing model of memory, we are most likely to remember information that we process at a _________ level. a. deeper b. medium c. shallower d. any of these, depending on the information
62. In the _________________ model, memory is seen as a simultaneous process, with the creation and storage of memories taking place across a series of networks "stretched" across the brain. a. levels-of-processing b. parallel distributed processing c. transfer-appropriate processing d. information-processing
b. parallel distributed processing
63. Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function? a. Craik and Lockhart's model b. extinction c. information-processing model d. parallel distributed processing model
c. information-processing model
64. The three parts of the information-processing model of memory are ____________. a. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory b. CS, UCS, UR, and CR c. encoding, storage, and retrieval d. shallow, medium, and deep processing
a. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
65. Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment? a. primary memory b. sensory memory c. long-term memory d. short-term memory
b. sensory memory
66. You are out for a drive with the family and are lucky enough to get a window seat. The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in _____________. a. echoic memory b. iconic memory c. long-term memory d. short-term memory
b. iconic memory
A time machine provides you the opportunity to interview Sigmund Freud. During the interview, Freud admits that he never wanted to attend medical school. When you ask him how he made it through, he says, "I had eidetic imagery." What does he mean by that? a. He relied on the ability to associate odd images with material he needed to remember. b. He had a photographic memory, which helped him remember the material he had to learn. c. He was able to imagine how cells in a patient's body were acting when he prescribed drugs and, thus, he could adjust dosages. d. In order to remember the long list of diseases he would encounter, he created drawings that helped him remember.
b. He had a photographic memory, which helped him remember the material he had to learn.
68. Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of _____. a. elaborative rehearsal b. maintenance rehearsal c. automatic encoding d. selective attention
d. selective attention
69. Which memory system is the one that is a working, active system that processes the information within it? a. long-term memory b. short-term memory c. secondary memory d. cognitive dissonance
b. short-term memory
70. What "magic number" did Miller find to be the capacity of short-term memory? a. 11 b. 9 c. 7 d. 5
71. Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ______. a. chunking b. categorizing c. rote rehearsal d. cueing
72. Maintenance rehearsal is defined as _______. a. processing the physical features of the stimulus to be remembered b. analyzing new material in order to make it memorable c. associating new material to be learned with information maintained in long-term memory d. repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory
d. repeating some bit of information over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory
73. Repeating items over and over in order to aid memory is known as ______ rehearsal. a. repetitive b. imagery c. elaborative d. maintenance
74. It is thought that long-term memory never can get filled up. The term used to describe the capacity of long-term memory is ____________. a. 7, plus or minus 2 b. about 10,000 items c. limited by the size of a person's brain d. unlimited
_____ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to ______ rehearsal. a. Permanent; condensed b. Condensed; permanent c. Elaborative; maintenance d. Maintenance; elaborative
c. Elaborative; maintenance
76. The portion of memory that is more or less permanent is called ______. a. primary memory b. working memory c. eidetic memory d. long-term memory
d. long-term memory
77. Which type of long-term memory is most difficult to bring into conscious awareness? a. episodic memory b. procedural memories c. declarative memories d. semantic memory
b. procedural memories
78. Memories for general facts and personal information are called _________. a. episodic memory b. procedural memories c. declarative memories d. factual memory
c. declarative memories
79. General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as parts of ___________. a. episodic memory b. procedural memories c. declarative memories d. semantic memory
d. semantic memory
80. Personal facts and memories of one's personal history are parts of ___________. a. episodic memory b. procedural memories c. declarative memories d. semantic memory
a. episodic memory
81. In the semantic network model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning __________. a. are not physically proximal b. are archaic c. are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related d. All of these are true
c. are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related
82. Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n) ______. a. elaborative rehearsal cue b. cross code c. structural cue d. retrieval cue
d. retrieval cue
83. Which of the following statements is true of retrieval cues? a. They are important in helping us remember items stored in long‑term memory. b. They are aids in rote rehearsal in short‑term memory. c. They can be helpful in both long- and short‑term memory. d. They have been recently shown to have little effect on the accessibility of information.
a. They are important in helping us remember items stored in long‑term memory.
84. Encoding specificity refers to _____________. a. using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories b. particular codes such as Morse code to transform information into bits c. the discrete and specific links that occur in a Collins and Quillan network d. none of these
a. using physical surroundings or emotions as retrieval cues for specific memories
85. Which of the following is an example of a test using recall? a. short answer b. essay c. fill-in-the-blank d. All of these are examples that use recall.
d. All of these are examples that use recall.
86. When the sound of the word is the aspect that cannot be retrieved, leaving only the feeling of knowing the word without the ability to pronounce it, this is known as _________. a. encoding failure b. extinction of acoustic storage c. auditory decay d. the tip-of-the-tongue effect
d. the tip-of-the-tongue effect
87. When given a list of items to remember, you are more likely to remember _______. a. the items in the beginning better than those in the middle or at the end b. the items in the middle more than those at the beginning or at the end c. the items at the end more than those in the middle or at the beginning of the list d. the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list
d. the items at the beginning and at the end more than those in the middle of the list
88. When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ______. a. phi phenomenon b. recency effect c. chunking effect d. primacy effect
d. primacy effect
89. When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the last items on the list. This is known as the ______. a. phi phenomenon b. chunking effect c. recency effect d. primacy effect
c. recency effect
90. Examples of tests that use recognition are _____________. a. multiple choice b. matching c. none of these d. both multiple choice and matching
d. both multiple choice and matching
91. Flashbulb memories ______. a. are not subject to periodic revision b. usually concern events that are emotionally charged c. are almost always highly accurate d. usually concern events from early childhood
b. usually concern events that are emotionally charged
92. As memories get older, they are most likely ____________________. a. to get lost b. to become stronger, more accurate, and more vivid c. to be regarded as unreliable by the person using them d. to become changed or altered in some fashion
d. to become changed or altered in some fashion
93. What type of stimuli did Hermann Ebbinghaus use in his memory experiments? a. words b. numbers c. pictures d. nonsense syllables
d. nonsense syllables
94. Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is _______________. a. interference b. memory trace decay c. encoding failure d. repression
c. encoding failure
95. Proactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when _____________. a. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information b. newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information c. information is not attended to and fails to be encoded d. information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time
a. older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information
96. Forgetting in long-term memory is most likely due to _____________. a. interference from other information b. decay or disuse c. encoding failure d. none of these
a. interference from other information
97. Consciousness is the ________________. a. state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes b. awareness of ourselves and the environment c. memory of personally experienced events d. intentional recollection of an item of information
b. awareness of ourselves and the environment
98. The state we are in when we are awake and reasonably alert is called ______. a. altered state of consciousness b. waking consciousness c. self-awareness d. intelligence
b. waking consciousness
99. Mental activities that differ noticeably from normal waking consciousness are known as ________. a. hyperconsciousness b. unconscious states c. relaxed wakefulness d. altered states of consciousness
d. altered states of consciousness
100. What aspect of circadian rhythms might explain why we tend to feel so tired at night? a. Body temperature bottoms out on Monday mornings. b. The three biorhythm patterns converge at low points on Mondays. c. Heart rates typically increase at night. d. There is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness.
d. There is an organ in the brain sensitive to light changes, which then affects our sleepiness.
101. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is called a(n) _____ cycle. a. infradian b. circadian c. diurnal d. ultradian
102. Which statement is correct concerning how much sleep people need? a. Most people need at least 10 hours. b. Men need more sleep than women. c. Most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep d. Women need more sleep than men.
c. Most people need between 7 and 8 hours of sleep
103. What term do sleep researchers use to designate stages 1-4 of sleep? a. REM sleep b. Non-REM sleep c. REMN sleep d. paradoxical sleep
b. Non-REM sleep
104. Which of the following is CORRECT concerning REM deprivation? a. REM deprivation results in long-term mental illness. b. REM deprivation only occurs among the elderly. c. REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep. d. REM deprivation can lead to visual impairments.
c. REM deprivation leads to increased amounts of REM sleep on subsequent nights of sleep.