235 terms

U.S. History

STAAR Vocabulary Influential People
John Hancock
Founding Father; American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress; First signer of the Declaration of Independence
John Jay
Founding Father; United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
U.S. Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Benjamin Rush
physician and Revolutionary American leader; founding father
John Witherspoon
American Revolutionary leader and educator (born in Scotland) who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and president of the college that became Princeton University (1723-1794); founding father
John Peter Muhlenberg
an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania; Founding Father
Charles Carroll
only Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence, Representative of Maryland, and served in Continental Congress
Jonathan Trumbull, Sr.
Tradesman; Governor of Conneticut; Trumbull was the only governor to support the position of the colonies. He had long been a supporter of colonial rights and during the war supplied General Washington with food, clothing, and munitions.
relative chronology
something that is in an order; does not necessarily have dates; time of an event in relation to another event
absolute chronology
sequential order of events including dates; Time and date measurements based upon an exact date (example: July 4, 1776)
Spanish-American War, 1898
Conflict between the U.S. and Spain that began the rise of the U.S. as a world power. The U.S. gained possession of Puerto Rico and the Philippines as a result. Cuba was liberated.
World War I, 1914-1918
First world war initiated by a conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia.The two opposing military alliances were the Entente (allied) (Russian Empire, Great Brittan, France, Canada, Australia, Italy, the Empire of Japan, Portugal, and the United States) and the Central Powers (German Empire, the Austrian-Hungarian empire, the Ottoman empire, Turkey, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria). The allied powers were victorious, but led to WWII.
Great Depression, 1929
A period of global recession that lasted from October of 1929 to the outbreak of WWII in 1939; Stock Market Crash of 1929
World War II, 1939-1945
Truly a global war which was waged over 2/3 of the entire planet;World War II began in 1939, and the United States was fully involved after Pearl Harbor in 1941 until the defeat of Japan in August, 1945.
Sputnik, 1957
a Russian artificial satellite
of or relating to or characteristic of the former Soviet Union or its people
Martin Luther King, Jr., 1968-1969
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
moon landing, 1969
first manned mission to land on the Moon. launched July 16, 1969 and landed July 20th
Cold War, 1991
Conflict between US allied nations and Soviet allied nations that never broke out in real direct war
9/11, 2001
A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001.
Barack Obama
44th U.S. President 2009-current Democratic; first African American President
Indian policies
1887 Dawes Act tried to assimilate or "Americanize" them by breaking up reservations, giving acres to individual Indians and selling the rest to settlers
political machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Civil Service Reform
Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
transition from an agricultural society to one based on industry
growth of railroads
-helps with trade
-provided goods to rural areas
-improvement of infrastructure which lead to economic growth
labor union
an organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
the process of starting, organizing, managing, and assuming the responsibility for a business
free enterprise
The freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.
big business
commercial enterprises organized and financed on a scale large enough to influence social and political policies
People who settle in a country they weren't born in
movement of people from rural areas to cities
Social Gospel
Religious response to the problems created by industrialization and urbanization in the late 19th century supporters of tthe social gospel supported child labor laws civil service reform and control of trusts
charitable donation to public causes
policy of extending a nation's boundaries
Henry Cabot
Senator from Massachusetts who supported the right of the US to expand its interests
Henry Cabot Lodge
Led a group of senators during Woodrow Wilson's presidency known as the "reservationists" during the 1919 debate over the League of Nations.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
Theodore Roosevelt
An assistant secretary of the Navy he favored expansion. He resigned his position in Washington to lead the Rough Riders in the Spanish American War. He eventually became vice president and then president after McKinley was assassinated; Progressive Era President
Sanford B. Dole
led the committee formed by local sugar interests that overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and sought annexation by the U.S.; first president of the Republic of Hawaii
the largest and southernmost island in the Marianas which is administered as a territory of the United States
Area annexed (added to) by the United States in 1898 which became in 1959 America's 50th state.
Annexation of these islands touched off foreign policy debates and a questioning of US imperialist intentions
an advocate of the policy of dominating other nations by acquiring their land
Puerto Rico
ceded to the US by Spain as a payment for the cost of the Spanish American War
American Expeditionary Forces
All of the military personnel, equipment and weaponry, medical staff, support and maintenance supplies, and so on sent to the Western front by President Woodrow Wilson after his declaration of war in April 1917, under the command of Gen. John J. Pershing.
trench warefare
characterized fighting on the western front in France of WW I, in which soldiers fought in rows of trenches dug out of the earth
a situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible; deadlock
A policy of avoiding political or military involvement with other countries.
policy of supporting neither side in a war
Woodrow Wilson
28th President of the United States
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points
- Summary of how President Wilson thought the war should be concluded; included the ideas of a just peace for Germany, self-determination for all nations, and the creation of a League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of, 28 June 1919, the peace settlement imposed on Germany after World War I, drawn up at the Paris Peace Conference.
Battle of Argonne Forrest
The last major battle of WWI where allies defeated the Germans.
Progressive Era
Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption while focusing on the general rights of the individual. Pushed for social justice, general equality, and public safety. The significance of this movement included trust-busting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle", Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
initiative, referendum and recall
These were three changes intended to increase the individual voter's influence in government. It gives a person the power to propose laws, states that certain laws passed by the state legislature do not take effect unless they are approved by a majority of the citizens, and strengthens the control of voters over elected officials.
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Upton Sinclair
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
Ida B. Wells
Muckracker who protested against lynching and spoke out in the newspaper Free Speech, asking the federal government for an anti-lynching law. She also wrote a Muckracking book about John Rockefeller.
W.E.B. DuBois
A black orator and eassayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations. First black to obtain PhD from Harvard University.
Third Parties
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
Populist Party
a former political party in the United States
Progressive Party
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native
Social Darwinism
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competition and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural; cultual changes
study of factors that influence the hereditary qualities of the human race and ways to improve those qualities
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
The Red Scare
Occurred shortly after the end of WWI when American soldiers returned from Europe in which there was a fear of communist infiltration in the country led primarily by attorney General A. Mitchell palmer.
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
Clarence Darrow
Chicago trial lawyer and leading member of the ACLU who earned fame defending the values of science and modernism in the 1925 Scopes Trial (and effectively weakening fundamentalism)
William Jennings Bryan
An American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States. Greatly supported and led the progressive movement and helped to enact the 18th amendment (prohibition). Fundamentalist; opposed evolution
Henry Ford
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Glenn Curtiss
Was an American aviation pioneer and founder of the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, now part of Curtiss-Wright Corporation. His company sold the first airplanes in the USA. Huge industrial enterprise during WWI
Marcus Garvey
African American leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Charles A. Lindbergh
Celebrity hero who was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic in a small single engine plane. He success gripped the public's imagination.
in the decade after WWI, American foreign policy objectives were aimed at maintaining peace and have been described as "independent internationalism" (Kellogg-Briand Pact, Good Neighbor Policy); began when Germany invaded Poland; US became involved when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan; FDR signed the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which was the first peacetime draft; internment of Japanese Americans; at Yalta, land was split up between the Allies; the beginning of the USSR's dominance
Pearl Harbor
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II.
U.S. Office of War Information
To control the content and imagery of war messages, the government created the U.S. Office of War Information (OWI) in June 1942. Among its wide-ranging responsibilities, OWI sought to review and approve the design and content of government posters.
Nazis' program during World War II to kill people they considered undesirable. Some 6 million Jews perished during the Holocaust, along with millions of Polish, Gypsies, Communists, Socialists, and others.
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial
Executive Order 9066
A United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering Japanese Americans to internment camps.
Conventional Weapons
Soldiers, small arms, artillary, tanks, war plants, and ships (as opposed to chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons).
Atomic Weapons
Devices that are highly radioactive and able to destroy entire cities.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Bataan Death March
Involved the forcible transfer of 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese in the Philippines from the Bataan peninsula to prison camps; was characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse and murder and resulted in very high fatalities inflicted upon the prisoners and civilians along the route by the armed forces of the Empire of Japan.
Invasion of Normandy
June 6, 1944; "D-Day"; Eisenhower directed an assault on a beach in France; Established the second front through France, only one of three successful invasions across the English Channel.
Concentration camps
Prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Omar Bradley
American general who led the ground forces at D Day (Invasion of Normandy 6-6-44).
Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th president of the US; Nicknamed Ike; General in the US army; During WWII, was supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe; Supervised invasion of France and Germany; Interstates
Douglas MacArthur
American general, United Nations general, and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army; Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II; designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan and officially accepted the nation's surrender; led the United Nations Command forces defending South Korea against the North Korean invasion; removed from command by President Truman for publicly disagreeing with Truman's Korean War Policy.
Chester A. Nimitz
Commander of the U.S Navy in the Pacific.
George Marshall
United States secretary of state who formulated a program providing economic aid to European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan provided massive American economic assistance to help Europe recover from the war.
George Patton
Known as "Old Blood and Guts," George S. Patton, Jr. was one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.
Love of one's country and willingness to make sacrifices for it.
A general term, but specifically referring to the American spirit of noncompulsory personal contribution to the war effort during World War I. Examples of this include "wheatless Wednesdays", "meatless Tuesdays", and "Victory Gardens".
War Bonds
Certificates of debt(loans) issued by a government -- the government uses the money to pay for a war and pays the investor at a certain future date.
Victory Gardens
Private gardens which American citizens were encouraged to create as a source of food during the war period.
Tuskegee Airmen
African American fighter pilots who trained in Tuskegee, Alabama, during World War II.
Flying Tigers
1st American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force; trained in Burma before the American entry into World War II with the intention of defending China against Japanese forces.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native American men who served in the military by transmitting radio messages in their native languages, which were undecipherable by German and Japanese spies.
ethnic minorities
People classified according to common traits and customs.
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 by President Truman after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Cuban Missile Crisis
An international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
President John F. Kennedy
Second youngest president, entered presidency as tensions of the Cold War increased; unable to get major initiatives through Congress due to conservative bloc; tax cuts (economic stimulation); reluctantly gets involved in civil rights; emphasizes Space Race (man on the moon).
Cold War
A state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare.
Arms Race
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Space Race
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a sensational campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954. McCarthyism became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.
House of Un-American Activities Committees
(HUAC) Congressional committee that played a prominent role in attempting to
uncover and punish those suspected of aiding the communist cause in the early years of the Cold War.
Venona Papers
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Federal Reserve System
The system created by Congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available.
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Women's Rights Movement
the organized effort to improve political, legal, and economic status of women in American society; it was largely inspired by women's frustration with their limited participation rights in the abolitionist movement
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Federal System
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
Progressive Reforms
A middle-class urban movement demanding reforms to regulate city services and stop corruption. It became a national movement which called for change to help US adjust to changes of the new century (early 1900's) such as industrialization, new technologies, rise of corporations and urban living.
Korean War
conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
The Containment Policy
policy that called on the United States to take steps to prevent Soviet expansion. The Policy would adopt two approaches. One approach was military; the other was economic.
Domino Theory
The idea that countries bordering communist countries were in more danger of falling to communism unless the United States and other western nations worked to prevent it.
Vietnam War
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment.
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Fall of Saigon
Marked the end of the Vietnam War in April, 1975 when North Vietnamese invaded South Vietnam, forcing all Americans left to flee in disarray as the capitol was taken
The Draft
"Conscription." compulsory military service. - all males join, start at age 18, - first used in civil war, last used WW2.
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age to 18.
The Credibility Gap
• What the government was telling the people about Vietnam was different from what the media was telling them
• Mid-late sixties
• LBJ's presidency
• Significance: People were starting to distrust the government, starting with the Gulf of Tonkin, people become MORE anti-war, LBJ knew how unpopular he was becoming
o End up pulling out of the war, start peace talks and not run for re-election
The Silent Majority
-a term popularized by Nixon about people who did not express their public opinion: those Americans who did not protest against the Vietnam War
-people who were tired of hearing about instability, racial injustice, and the poor.
The Anti-War Movement
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War is significant because it was the first time a war was shown and accessed through the media to the public in the United States.
Civil Rights Movement
A social movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s, in which people organized to demand equal rights for African Americans and other minorities. People worked together to change unfair laws. They gave speeches, marched in the streets, and participated in boycotts.
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States. 1865
14th Amendment
Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels. 1868
15th Amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Martin L. King Jr.
Famous civil rights leader that believed in passive resistance. He wrote the "I have a dream" speech and was an icon for racial harmony and a champion for civil rights.
Cesar Chavez
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Hector P. Garcia
founded the American GI Forum to help minority veterans obtain the same benefits other veterans recieved
Betty Friedan
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
I Have a Dream Speech
A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960's to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
"Letter From Birmingham Jail"
Martin Luther king's response to a statement made by Alabama clergy regarding his protest; written from his cell in Birmingham where he was arrested for a non-violent protest; King wrote about what makes laws 'just or unjust' ; said that "injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere".
Civil Rights Act of 1957
a voting rights bill proposed by Eisenhower, Thurmond had the longest one person fillbuster-24 hrs 18 mins, the bill passed.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap.
George Wallace
Wallace was the governor of Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement and a staunch segregationist. He was a popular figure among segregationists becoming a rallying point.
Orval Faubus
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
Lester Maddox
A 1966 segregationist who was elected governor. Actually, he was selected to be by the Democratic Ga. Government because no party received a majority of the votes. Had no real organization or power which allowed for more power in the legislature. 1970 was lieutenant Governor under Jimmy Carter.
Brown vs Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
Mendez vs Westminster
California, March 1945; Gonzalo Mendez sued in district court because his children were denied access to schools.
Hernandez vs Texas
Case of Pete Hernandez who was accused of murder by an all white jury heard by the Supreme Court; won right of Mexican Americans to serve on jury.
Delgado vs Bastrop ISD
Segregation of Tejano children in public schools declared unconstitutional., seperation of Mexican American children in Texas is unconstitutional.
Sweatt vs Painter
Discrimination in Education; UT law school admissions and creation of separate law school- Supreme Court rules unequal because accommodations separate but not equal in opportunity.
Richard M. Nixon
37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office. He initially escalated the Vietnam War, overseeing secret bombing campaigns, but soon withdrew American troops and successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending American involvement in the war. Watergate Scandal.
Policy of Detente
Refers to improved US Soviet relations in the 1970's.
Ronald Reagan
1981-1989,"Great Communicator" Republican, conservative economic policies, replaced liberal Democrats in upper house with consevative Democrats or "boll weevils" , at reelection time, jesse jackson first black presdiential candidate, Geraldine Ferraro as VP running mate (first woman).
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Peace through Strength
Regan's policy of combating communism by building up the military, including aggressive development of new weapons systems.
The U.S. has historically had good relations with them. This is a big problem to many of the other Middle East countries. The government is a democracy (people elect their political leaders).
Camp David Accords
The Camp David Accords were the peace accords signed by Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat to finally end the Israeli-Egyptian disputes. The achievement by President Carter is considered his greatest achievement in office.
Iran-Contra Affairs
(RR) Americans kidnapped in Beirut by Iranian govt, so deal, scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected, Poindexter and North involved.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Phyllis Schlafly
anti-feminist who led the campaign to defeat the ERA claiming it would undermine the american family
Contract with America
Republican plan headed by Newt Gingrich that focused on scaling back the government, balancing the budget, and cutting taxes
Heritage Foundation
Conservative ideas; The Heritage Foundation, a public policy think tank that promotes the principles that made America great: free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.
Moral Majority
Group of religious conservatives led by Rev. Jerry Falwell supported Reagan in 1980;
National Rifle Association
a powerful lobby that advocates the right to own and bear arms and rejects any gun regulation by the government
Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers; tension that did not lead to war; 1945-1989; Faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Persian Gulf War
Conflict that was triggered by a dispute over oil-drilling rights, leading to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. This war ended when the U.S. intervened, crushing Iraqi resistance and liberating Kuwait.
Balkans Crisis
War on Terror
2008 Presidential Election
Great Plains
The Great Plains is the area extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. It was a treeless but grassy region difficult to farm in the nineteenth century. Plains Indians lived off the buffalo and other wildlife; white settlers turned to cattle and sheep ranching there. It was sometimes called the Great American Desert. Later part of the 19th Century due to gold, railroad, killing of buffalo and dry farming techniques, the Great Plains became fruitful.
Klondike Gold Rush
Name the gold rush, which began in the Yukon Territory in 1890. The massive influx of people contributed significantly to the economic development of Alaska and Northwest Canada.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages; massive migration of farm families followed
New Orlean's Levee
Caused signficant damage to coastal area; leaving many homeless and to leave the area to live inland
Great Migration
Labor shortage due to WWI and the closing off of foreign immigration lead to ethnic minorities to move into the workforce. Recruiters were sent in the Deep South to find workers for factories and mills. Over 400,000 African Americans migrated northward.
Rust Belt to the Sun Belt
The economic boom in cities of the Midwest, Northeast, and West - spawned particularly by World War II - had come to a grinding halt by the early 1970s. Many of the factories and plants that had lured African Americans from the South during and after the war were abandoned in the wake of a globalizing economy and the oil crisis of the early 1970s. The new economic order literally destroyed communities and eliminated hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs.
National Park System
After the Civil War a growing number of individuals and organizations had begun to oppose the unregulated exploitation of natural resources and sought to preserve wilderness areas; Theodore Roosevelt supported efforts as president; a Progressive movement; many American Indians and white settlers lost their homes due to establishment of parks; railroad companies wanted parks for tourism; regulation established for timber industry and hunting practices
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
In 1970 Nixon signed legislation creating a federal Enviromnental Protection Agency and a National Oceanic and Atomospheric Administration; energy crisis at that time lead people to understand that natural resources were not infinitely expendable.
Tin Pan Alley
The name given to the collection of NYC centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the US in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
Harlem Renaissance
African American literary and artistic movement of the 1920's and 1930's centered in NYC's Harlem District
Beat Generation
is a term used to describe a group of American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, and also the cultural phenomena that they wrote about and inspired; referred to as Beatniks; questioned traditional values; polictical/lifestyle challenges; questioned authority
Chicano Mural Movement
The Chicano mural movement began in the 1960s in Mexican-American barrios throughout the Southwest. Artists began using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools, and churches to depict Mexican-American culture. Chicano muralism has been linked to pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas, who recorded their rituals and history on the walls of their pyramids, and Mexican revolutionary-era painters José Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, and David Alfaros Siquieros, collectively known as los tres grandes, who painted murals in the United States
Rock and Roll Music
Exploded into the American cultural scene in the mid-1950s, originated in the music that dominated black working-class communities during and after WWII
Many of leading artists were newly urbanized migrants from rural South; Some parents and conservative critics denounced rock-and-roll as an evil influence on the young
Country and Western Music
The origins of what we think of today as country music can be traced back in large part to the eighteenth-century American South, as large numbers of English-speaking settlers moved into the region. By the early nineteenth century, some of these Anglo pioneers had moved as far west as Texas. As a primarily rural, agrarian society, the South remained somewhat culturally isolated from the increasingly urbanized and industrialized North. Consequently, southerners tended to preserve the traditional folk music of their ancestral homelands; British folk music;
Americanization Movement
A movement designed to assimilate people of wide ranging cultures into the dominate culture. This social movement was sponsored by the government and concerned citizens. Schools and voluntary associations taught immigrants skills need for citizenship, such as English literacy and American history and government. Courses were also taught in cooking and social etiquette to help learn the ways or native born Americans. Despite these efforts, many immigrants did not wish to abandon their traditions.
Frances Willard
an American educator, temperance reformer, and women's suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution.
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes; social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889, which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, and in 1931 shared the Nobel Peace Prize.
Eleanor Roosevelt
the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women.
Dolores Huerta
Mexican American leader who helped establish the United Farm Workers of America, a group that fought for rights for migrant farm workers.
Sonia Sotomayor
Appointed by President Obama in 2009, first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice
Opray Winfrey
Popular talk show host; influenced many through her fame; political ties to Barack Obama
E Pluibus Unum
"Out of Many, One" ~ U.S. Motto; E pluribus unum was suggested by the committee Congress appointed on July 4, 1776 to design "a seal for the United States of America."
In God We Trust
The U. S. Department of Treasury states "the motto, IN GOD WE TRUST, was placed on United States coins largely because of the increased religious sentiment existing during the Civil War; 1955 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a public law requiring all money have the motto
Vernon J. Baker
For extraordinary heroism in action on 5 and 6 April 1945, near Viareggio, Italy. Then Second Lieutenant Baker demonstrated outstanding courage and leadership in destroying enemy installations, personnel and equipment during his company's attack against a strongly entrenched enemy in mountainous terrain. When his company was stopped by the concentration of enemy's fire. On the following night Lieutenant Baker voluntarily led a battalion advance through enemy mine fields and heavy fire toward the division objective. Second Lieutenant Baker's fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his men and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces; African American; Died 2010; Congressional Medal of Honor
Alvin York
tennessee-born soldier whose action in the Argonne Forest made him an american hero. After his platoon had suffered heavy casualties and 3 other noncommissioned officers had become casualties, Cpl. York assumed command. Fearlessly leading 7 men, he charged with great daring a machinegun nest which was pouring deadly and incessant fire upon his platoon. In this heroic feat the machinegun nest was taken, together with 4 officers and 128 men and several guns; Congressional Medal of Honor
Roy Benavidez
A war hero of Vietnam, who had been presented with the Congressional Medal of Honor by Reagan; Texas Born
New Deal Legislation
Franklin D. Roosevelt's campaign promise, in his speech to Democratic National Convention of 1932, to combat the Great Depression with a 'new deal for the American people'; the prase became a catchword for his ambitious plan of economic programs including social security; increased government controls
Teapot Dome
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921;
Washington office and apartment complex that lent its name to the the 1972-74 scandal of the Nixon administration; when his knowledge of the break-in at the Watergate's Democratic campaign headquarters and subsequent coverup was revealed, Nixon resigned the presidency under threat of impeachment;
Bill Clinton's Impeachment
Impeached for perjury, abuse of power, and obstruction of justice stemming from his affair with intern Monica Lewinsky; he was acquitted of all charges.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
A congressional act that encourages mortgage originators to actively lend in their communities and that requires financial institutions to evaluate the "fairness" of their lending practices.
USA Patriot Act of 2001
A US federal law designed to stregthen the federal government's ability to investigate, prosecute, and seize the assets of terrorists.
American Reinvestment Act of 2009
On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ("ARRA"). Title XII of ARRA appropriated $2.250 billion for a grant program to provide funds for capital investments in Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) projects.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
War Powers Act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree
legislative branch of government
executive branch of government
Executive Branch: Headed by the president. The president carries out federal laws and recommends new ones, directs national defense and foreign policy, and performs ceremonial duties. Powers include directing government, commanding the Armed Forces, dealing with international powers, acting as chief law enforcement officer, and vetoing laws.
judicial branch of government
Branch of government that is composed of federal court system that include supreme court and a system of lower courts-district courts, appeals courts, bankruptcy courts, and special federal courts.
Federal judges are nominated by the president of the United States and confirmed by the Senate.
All federal judges are appointed for life.
The supreme court is composed of 9 judges, and their ruling is considered final.
Major responsibilities of this body are to interpret the constitution, resolve conflicts among states, and interpret laws and treaties.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Hernandez v. Texas
Supreme Court decision that ended exclusion of Mexican Americans from juries in Texas. 1954
Tinker v. Des Moines
The case that ruled that students do not lose Constitutional rights when they entered the building but they can be limited if they cause a disruption; Black armbands in school is free speech, protected by 1st amendment
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Jonas Yoder and Wallace Miller, both members of the Old Order Amish religion, and Adin Yutzy, a member of the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, were prosecuted under a Wisconsin law that required all children to attend public schools until age 16. The three parents refused to send their children to such schools after the eighth grade, arguing that high school attendance was contrary to their religious beliefs.
White v. Regester
In this litigation challenging the Texas 1970 legislative reapportionment scheme, a three-judge District Court held that the House plan, state-wide, contained constitutionally impermissible deviations from population
equality, and that the multi-member districts provided for Bexar and Dallas Counties invidiously discriminated against racial or ethnic groups. Though the entire plan was declared invalid, the court permitted its use for the 1972 election except for its injunction order requiring those two county multi-member districts to be reconstituted into single member districts.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy including views on liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, populism, and laissez-faire.
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
a belief in the equality of all people
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
26th Amendment
Ratified 1971. Standardized the voting age to 18.
American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924