Oceanograpby chapter 1-4

for Tarnoff in Mt. Sac oceanography course
The scientist method included all of the following EXCEPT
validation of theory
The Four principle ocean of the Earth are the
Atlantic, Arctic, Indian and Pacific Ocean
Fish first appeared
during the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era
Heterotrophic organisms can make their own own food from inorganic carbon sources.
Free oxygen was present in the Earth's primordial atmosphere.
The salinity of the oceans has been steadily increasing.
Radioactive isotopes can sometimes be used to determine
absolute age of the rock.
Anaerobic organisms require oxygen to survive.
Organisms that break down organic molecules and release energy are called:
heterotrophic organisms
When the Earth cooled, the layers of the earth separated based on density differences.
Earth developed the first ocean by about 4 million years ago.
Radiometric age dating is used to determine the age of most rock layers.
The separation of the Earth into layers was the result of the
differing densities of the rock and mineral materials.
Free oxygen in our atmosphere is important to the development and maintenance of life on Earth because oxygen
is necessary for photosynthesis to occur
The "Age of Discovery" began with
Christopher Columbus' discovery of the "New World."
Carbon dating is used to determine the absolute age of a rock or fossil.
In general, the chemical composition of ocean water has remained constant through geologic time.
The nebular hypothesis suggests that
all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous gas cloud
Which of the following statements regarding continental and oceanic crust is TRUE?
Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
One distinction between an "ocean" and a "sea" is that a sea
All of the above are correct.
The Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago.
Oceanic crust is primarily:
Vikings led by Thor Heyerdahl established temporary colonies in North America.
All of the following are TRUE concerning the deepest part of the ocean except:
the depth of the trench is estimated at 12,500 meters.
The Ming Dynasty ships used magnetic compasses similar to those used today.compasses similar to those used today.
Vine and Matthews determined that new ocean floor was being produced at ocean ridges by examining
the magnetic pattern on the seafloor.
Deep ocean trenches are associated with
subduction zones
Coral reefs
include atolls, barrier, and fringing reefs.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a
divergent boundary.
At divergent plate boundaries, only shallow focus earthquakes can be found.
Oceans become deeper moving away from ridges due to
thermal contraction of hot asthenosphere.
Paleomagnetism confirms that at particular times in the geologic past Earth has had more than one magnetic north pole.
The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is
moving over a hot spot
Climate distribution on Earth is primarily controlled by
All continents fit together with the least number of overlaps and gaps when the continents are matched along:
contours at around 2000 meters in depth.
Convergent plate boundaries occur when tectonic plates move in opposite directions.
Moving from oceanic ridge to oceanic trench, the thickness of the lithosphere
increases in proportion to the distance.
Iceland is geologically active because it sits above a hotspot and is located along the mid-Atlantic ridge.
The relatively young age of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must take place.
Differences in height between continental crust and oceanic crust are explained by
Deep focus earthquakes are often associated with deep-sea trenches.
The San Andreas Fault
is a continental transform fault
Fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the equator because the
plants lived near the poles, but land masses have drifted to current locations.
Water depth decreases as you move away from the mid-ocean ridge.
Confirmation of seafloor spreading was supported by the
age of seafloor
All of the following are true of the Wilson Cycle except
the Wilson Cycle is a technique used to date ocean sediments.
New crust is formed at trenches and old crust is subducted at ridges.
Earthquakes are common along fracture zones.
Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries?
volcanic island arcs
The oldest rocks are located at mid-ocean ridges.
Old lithosphere is destroyed in association with
deep-sea trenches
New lithosphere is produced in association with
mid-ocean ridges
Underwater avalanches of muddy water mixed with rocks and debris are:
turbidity currents
The most gradual change in slope in the ocean can be found at the
abyssal plain
Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region called the
continental slope
Due to the very harsh environment, few organisms are found in association with hydrothermal vents.
The instrument that emits a high-frequency sound beam to measure the depth of the ocean developed in the 1950s is the
Trenches change their position over time.
All of the following are considered part of the continental margin except the
fracture zone
The two relatively flat areas on the hypsometric curve represent
some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains
Seamounts are the feature labeled
Seamounts form from ancient tablemounts
The most rapid change in slope in the ocean is found at the
oceanic trench
A sediment-laden current that flows off of the continental shelf is called a turbidity current
Sediments of the continental rise can exhibit characteristics similar to those formed by rivers on land.
Subduction zones appear to remain nearly stationary over long periods of time.
These organisms are most likely found in
hydrothermal vents
Mid-ocean ridges are rises that occupy a small portion of the deep ocean basin, only around 10%.
Abyssal hills are only visible in the Pacific Ocean because
they are higher in the Pacific than in the other ocean basins
Tablemounts are the features labeled
The correct order of marine provinces from the coast to the mid-ocean ridge is
shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain
Passive continental margins are characterized by all of the following except
deep-sea trenches
Submarine canyons were most likely formed by
erosion by turbidity currents
The Pacific Ring of Fire is the seismically active area at the margins of the Pacific plate where earthquakes and volcanoes are common
With respect to mid-ocean ridges, transform faults are
perpendicular to the ridge axis.
The type of marine sediment that forms the thickest deposits world-wide is
neritic coarse lithogenous sediment deposits
Sediments produced as a result of chemical reactions in seawater are called
Sediments produced by plants and animals in the sea are called
Which of the following contains silica (SiO2)
Calcium carbonate, phosphates, and manganese may precipitate out of solution to form deposits on the ocean floor.
All of the following are lithogenous sediments except
diatom ooze
Organisms that live on the ocean floor may be responsible for keeping manganese nodules from being buried in the sediment.
Tektites are glassy rock fragments of cosmic origin.
Sediments with an extraterrestrial origin are called
The sediments that are produced in areas of high primary productivity are indicated by the number(s):
2 & 3.
Phosphate nodules are found on the continental shelf.
Sediments derived form preexisting rocks are called
Ocean sediments provide all of the following mineral resources except
Calcareous shells will not accumulate on the ocean floor when the water depth exceeds about 4500 meters (around 15,000 feet)
A glacial deposit is well-sorted
Which of the following contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?
Calcium carbonate is most likely to dissolve in water with which characteristics?
lots of carbon dioxide and cold temperatures
High energy environments are most likely to contain which one of the following?
large particles such as gravel
A pelagic clay contains lots of material that settles to the seafloor through the water column and are:
less than 30% biogenous material.
The major force bringing continental sediments to the open ocean is (are)
Beach sand is usually well-sorted.
Calcareous oozes are represented by the number(s);
The organisms in this photograph would most likely produce oceanic sediments that are:
The deposition of radiolarian oozes is affected by the carbonate compensation depth
Sediments found on continental margins are called