motivation is primarily a function of individual characteristics including personality, needs and goals
the view most widely endorsed by sport & exercise psychologists; participant-by-situation
Need Achievement Theory
an interactional view that considers both personal and situational factors as important predictors of behavior; made up of 5 components: Personality factors, situational factors, resultant tendency, emotional reactions, achievement behavior
Two underlying achievement motives: to achieve success and to avoid failure. Behavior is influenced by the balance of these motives
Two primary considerations: probability of success in the situation or task and incentive value of success.
Resultant or Behavioral Tendencies
Derived by considering an individuals achievement motive levels in relation to situational factors
Need Achievement Theory Achievement Behavior
Indicates how the four other components of the Need Achievement Theory interact to influence behavior
The tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments
Achievement Goal Theory
Three factors interact to determine a person's motivation: achievement goals, perceived ability, and achievement behavior.
Two types: High perceived ability or competence or low perceived ability or competence
Achievement Goal Theory Achievement Behavior
Performance, effort, persistence, task choice; Realistic tasks or opponents; Unrealistic tasks or opponents
Benefits of Self-Confidence
It can help individuals to arouse positive emotions, facilitate concentration, set goals, increase effort, focus their strategies, and maintain momentum.
Coaching Expectations and Athletes' Performance
Four steps to coaching technique or style that affect athletic performance
Step 1: Coaches form expectations
A coach may use person cues to form judgments about an athlete's competence or use performance information (past accomplishments, skill tests or other evaluations)
Step 2: Coaches' expectations influence their behaviors
behavior is different depending on whether high or low expectations have been established: Frequency & quality of coach-athlete interaction; quantity & quality of instruction; type & frequency of feedback
Step 3: Coaches' behaviors affect athletes' performance
The coaches' expectation-biased treatment of athletes affects performance both physically and psychologically
Step 4: Athletes' performances confirm the coaches' expectations
Communicates to the coach that they were correct in their initial assessment of the athletes' ability and potential.
Provides a model to study the effects of self-confidence on sport performance, persistence, and behavior
Self-confidence; the perception of one's ability to perform a task successfully, is a situation-specific form of self-confidence
Sources of self-efficacy
Performance accomplishments; vicarious experiences (modeling); verbal persuasion; imaginal experience; physiological states; emotional states
Past experiences that provide a foundation for self-efficacy judgements, whether in success or failure
A source of efficacy derived from demonstration or modeling used to help one learn new skills; four stage process: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.
Persuasive techniques used to influence behavior and boost confidence to enhance self-efficacy
The process in which a person generates beliefs about personal efficacy or lack of efficacy from imagining themselves or others effectively or ineffectively behaving in future situations
Aversive or facilitative physiological arousal can influence one's self-efficacy by their interpretation of the such arousal