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direction and intensity of one's effort

Trait-Centered View

motivation is primarily a function of individual characteristics including personality, needs and goals

Situation-Centered View

motivation level is determined primarily by situation

Interactional View

the view most widely endorsed by sport & exercise psychologists; participant-by-situation

Need Achievement Theory

an interactional view that considers both personal and situational factors as important predictors of behavior; made up of 5 components: Personality factors, situational factors, resultant tendency, emotional reactions, achievement behavior

Personality Factors

Two underlying achievement motives: to achieve success and to avoid failure. Behavior is influenced by the balance of these motives

Situational Factors

Two primary considerations: probability of success in the situation or task and incentive value of success.

Resultant or Behavioral Tendencies

Derived by considering an individuals achievement motive levels in relation to situational factors

Emotional Reactions

How much pride or shame one experiences

Need Achievement Theory Achievement Behavior

Indicates how the four other components of the Need Achievement Theory interact to influence behavior

Achievement Motivation

The tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments

Achievement Goal Theory

Three factors interact to determine a person's motivation: achievement goals, perceived ability, and achievement behavior.

Achievement Goals

Outcome-oriented or task-oriented; better to adopt a task-oriented goal.

Perceived Ability

Two types: High perceived ability or competence or low perceived ability or competence

Achievement Goal Theory Achievement Behavior

Performance, effort, persistence, task choice; Realistic tasks or opponents; Unrealistic tasks or opponents


The belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior

Trait Self-Confidence

Part of your personality; considered very stable

State Self-Confidence

Something you may feel today; unstable

Benefits of Self-Confidence

It can help individuals to arouse positive emotions, facilitate concentration, set goals, increase effort, focus their strategies, and maintain momentum.

Coaching Expectations and Athletes' Performance

Four steps to coaching technique or style that affect athletic performance

Step 1: Coaches form expectations

A coach may use person cues to form judgments about an athlete's competence or use performance information (past accomplishments, skill tests or other evaluations)

Step 2: Coaches' expectations influence their behaviors

behavior is different depending on whether high or low expectations have been established: Frequency & quality of coach-athlete interaction; quantity & quality of instruction; type & frequency of feedback

Step 3: Coaches' behaviors affect athletes' performance

The coaches' expectation-biased treatment of athletes affects performance both physically and psychologically

Step 4: Athletes' performances confirm the coaches' expectations

Communicates to the coach that they were correct in their initial assessment of the athletes' ability and potential.

Self-Efficacy Theory

Provides a model to study the effects of self-confidence on sport performance, persistence, and behavior


Self-confidence; the perception of one's ability to perform a task successfully, is a situation-specific form of self-confidence

Sources of self-efficacy

Performance accomplishments; vicarious experiences (modeling); verbal persuasion; imaginal experience; physiological states; emotional states

Efficacy Expectations

The combination of sources of self-efficacy that lead to athletic performance

Performance Accomplishments

Past experiences that provide a foundation for self-efficacy judgements, whether in success or failure

Vicarious Experiences

A source of efficacy derived from demonstration or modeling used to help one learn new skills; four stage process: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.

Verbal Persuasion

Persuasive techniques used to influence behavior and boost confidence to enhance self-efficacy

Imaginal Experiences

The process in which a person generates beliefs about personal efficacy or lack of efficacy from imagining themselves or others effectively or ineffectively behaving in future situations

Physiological States

Aversive or facilitative physiological arousal can influence one's self-efficacy by their interpretation of the such arousal

Emotional States

Positive and negative emotions affect self-efficacy judgements

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