motivation is primarily a function of individual characteristics including personality, needs and goals
motivation level is determined primarily by situation
the view most widely endorsed by sport & exercise psychologists; participant-by-situation
Need Achievement Theory
an interactional view that considers both personal and situational factors as important predictors of behavior; made up of 5 components: Personality factors, situational factors, resultant tendency, emotional reactions, achievement behavior
Two underlying achievement motives: to achieve success and to avoid failure. Behavior is influenced by the balance of these motives
Two primary considerations: probability of success in the situation or task and incentive value of success.
Resultant or Behavioral Tendencies
Derived by considering an individuals achievement motive levels in relation to situational factors
How much pride or shame one experiences
Need Achievement Theory Achievement Behavior
Indicates how the four other components of the Need Achievement Theory interact to influence behavior
The tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments
Achievement Goal Theory
Three factors interact to determine a person's motivation: achievement goals, perceived ability, and achievement behavior.
Outcome-oriented or task-oriented; better to adopt a task-oriented goal.
Two types: High perceived ability or competence or low perceived ability or competence
Achievement Goal Theory Achievement Behavior
Performance, effort, persistence, task choice; Realistic tasks or opponents; Unrealistic tasks or opponents
The belief that you can successfully perform a desired behavior
Part of your personality; considered very stable
Something you may feel today; unstable
Benefits of Self-Confidence
It can help individuals to arouse positive emotions, facilitate concentration, set goals, increase effort, focus their strategies, and maintain momentum.
Coaching Expectations and Athletes' Performance
Four steps to coaching technique or style that affect athletic performance
Step 1: Coaches form expectations
A coach may use person cues to form judgments about an athlete's competence or use performance information (past accomplishments, skill tests or other evaluations)
Step 2: Coaches' expectations influence their behaviors
behavior is different depending on whether high or low expectations have been established: Frequency & quality of coach-athlete interaction; quantity & quality of instruction; type & frequency of feedback