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Developmental Psychology Homework II
Terms in this set (48)
- Concrete operational thought
•Ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions
- Horizontal décalage
•Certain concepts appear in sequence over time at each level
- Hierarchy of categories
•Involves organization of things into groups (or categories or classes) according to some common characteristic
•By age 8, most children can classify.
•Includes knowledge that things can be arranged in logical series
- Role of instruction
•Education occurs everywhere and knowledge is acquired from social context.
•Guiding each child through zone of proximal development is crucial.
•Children are apprentices in learning.
•Language is integral as a mediator for understanding and learning.
- Information-processing theory
•Compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data
Like computers, people sense and perceive large amounts of information
•Seek specific units of information (as a search engine does
•Analyze (as software programs do)
•Express their conclusions so another person can understand (as a networked computer or a printout might do)
- Evidence of theory's usefulness
•Gradual brain growth seen in neurological scans
•Central processing hubs built over time with practice and learning (automaticity)
•Siegler's math research findings
•Gradual accrual of math understanding
•Cultural influences of practice specifics
- Working memory improves steadily and significantly.
- Long-term memory capacity is virtually limitless by the end of middle childhood.
- Memory storage expands over childhood, but retrieval is more important.
- As the prefrontal cortex matures, children are better able to use strategies.
- Extensive knowledge base makes it easier to master new, related information.
- Knowledge base influences
- Control processes (neurological mechanisms)
•Require the brain to organize, prioritize, and direct mental operations
•Are often called "executive process"; ability to use these is called "executive function"
•Improve with age and experience
- Executive function
•Metacognition: Thinking about thinking
•Metamemory: Knowing about memory
- By age 6, children
•Know most of the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language
•May speak a second or even a third language
- In middle childhood
•Words become pivotal for curriculum understanding
- Understanding metaphors
- School-age children comprehend and enjoy
•Puns, unexpected answers to normal questions, and metaphors because their new cognitive flexibility and social awareness make them funny
•Are context specific and build on knowledge base
- Adjusting vocabulary to the context
•Ability to use words and devices to communicate in various contexts
•Allow children to change formal and informal codes to fit audience
- Code changes are obvious when children speak one language at home and another at school.
•Almost 1 out of 4 U.S. school-age children have home language other than English; 1 of 20 speak regional dialect.
•All these alternate codes have distinct patterns of timing, grammar, and emphasis, as well as vocabulary, so all require much more than literal translation.
- Code-switching correlates with school achievement.
•No brain differences occur if two languages learned in first three years.
•More children in the United States are now bilingual, and more of them speak English well, from
Language learning depends on
•Home environment literacy
•Teacher's warmth, training, and skill
- English Language Learners (ELLs)
•First language instruction new language instruction
•Instruction in two languages
•English as a Second Language (ESL)
•Intense instruction with non-English speakers together
•No use of first language
Common mistakes in detecting language learning difficulties
•Assuming nonschool language children are learning disabled
•Concluding cause of every bilingual child's learning problem is solely language based
•Low-SES families: Smaller vocabularies, simpler vocabularies, shorter sentences
•Hippocampus development: e.g., inadequate prenatal care, no breakfast, lead, crowded housing, neighborhood violence
•Adult positive expectations related to achievement
•Shared parent-teacher expectations
•Cultures differ in what is valued, but there are some age-based goals.
•Educational practices differ between and within nations.
•Variation is greater in hidden curriculum.
Over the past two decades, more than 50 nations have participated in at least one massive international test of educational achievement.
International Achievement Test Scores
•Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)
•Trends in Math and Science Study (TIMSS)
- What Do These Rankings Reveal?
National and cultural contexts affect test scores.
U.S. ranking has risen over the past two decades, but in 2015 there were 19 nations whose fourth-graders surpassed U.S. students.
Most developing nations do not give these tests, but when they do their scores are low.
Finland's educational reforms resulted in dramatic ranking increases since 2011.
•Girls ahead of boys in verbal skills in every nation
•Boys ahead of girls in math and science
•Gender differences in math narrowed or disappeared (gender-similarities hypothesis)
•Girls have higher grades
- As of 2014 in the United States, the nation's public schools have become "majority minority"
- In middle childhood, every child develops cognitively with specifics dependent far more on individual, particular experiences than on ethnic background.
- Improvement in academic performance over past decades
•Gaps between income and ethnic groups from prekindergarten to high school
•U.S. schools more segregated than four decades ago
- National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
- Ongoing and nationally representative measure of U.S. children's achievement in reading, mathematics, and other subjects over time, and is nicknamed "the Nation's Report Card."
- Common Core of standards (2010)
- Standards, more rigorous than most state standards, are quite explicit, with half a dozen or more specific expectations for achievement in each subject for each grade; adopted by 44 states
•Initially favored; opposition as testing increased and implementation began
Education Next findings
•Teacher opposition to Common Core 12 percent in 2013; 40 percent in 2014
•Public education and public funding priorities
•Public education and freedom of religion
•Arts in the curriculum
•Second language learning in primary school
•Computers in education
According to Piaget, the stage of thinking that is characteristic of middle childhood, when logical abilities emerge, is:
concrete operational thinking.
Which of the following accurately represents Piaget's thoughts about how children progress through the stages of cognitive development?
Children advance step by step through each stage, a process that Piaget called horizontal décalage.
The logical principle that things can be organized into groups or categories according to some characteristic that they have in common is that of:
The knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical series is:
Piaget stressed the _____, whereas Vygotsky stressed the _____.
child's own discovery of concepts; importance of instruction by others
_____ emphasizes that, like computers, humans search for and accumulate large amounts of information, analyze it for relevancy, and then express what was concluded from the analysis.
The information-processing perspective
____ refers to a process by which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions leads to the sequence become so routine that it does not require conscious thought.
_____ memory is when incoming stimulus information is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed.
The process through which current conscious mental activity takes place is referred to as _____ memory.
When information is transferred to _____, it may be stored for minutes, hours, days, months, or years.
The best learning occurs when concepts are:
connected to personal and emotional experiences.
The ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task, shows application of control processes, sometimes referred to as:
By age _____, children have mastered the basic vocabulary and grammar of their first language.
Immersion refers to:
providing all instruction in the language that the child is learning.
Which of the following is a factor that influences both language development and academic achievement?
socioeconomic status of the family
According to the text, a crucial factor that can cause low achievement in children is:
teachers' and parents' expectations.
Throughout the world, _____ percent of 7-year-olds are in school.
Results received from international achievement tests are considered valid because:
test items are designed to be fair and culture-free with respect to student diversity.
The Common Core Standards Initiative was initiated by the:
governors of all 50 states.
According to the text, charter schools:
All of the answers are correct:
- can be more ethnically segregated and have fewer children with special needs, when compared to public schools.
- can have more control over admissions and expulsions, when compared to public schools.
- are exempt from some regulations that apply to public schools.
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Developmental Psychology Homework I
Developmental Psychology Homework III
Developmental Psychology Homework IV
Developmental Psychology Homework V
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