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Developmental Psychology Homework III
Terms in this set (37)
An adolescent's development moves from egocentrism to abstract logic.
•Characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 14) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others
•Acute self-consciousness about physical appearance greatest between ages 10 and 14
Egocentrism leads adolescents to interpret everyone else's behavior as if it were a judgment on them.
Other people who, in an adolescent's egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior
•This belief makes many teenagers self-conscious.
•The imaginary audience dominates online.
Aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else's.
An adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving
Formal-Operational Thought: Piaget
•Fourth and final stage of cognitive development
•Characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas
•Examples seen in adolescent math, social science, and science performance
Dual Processing and the Brain:
•Limbic system is activated by puberty; prefrontal cortex matures more gradually.
•Cortical regions involving impulse control continue to develop through early adulthood.
•Subcortical regions involving sensation seeking develop rapidly after puberty.
Piaget and his colleagues devised a number of tasks to assess formal operational thought.
•A balancing task required balancing a scale with weights.
•Skill in logically solving the task improved with age.
- Includes reasoning that uses propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality
•May complicate decision making with immediate, practical questions
Reason inductively that some people are prejudiced; argue
Think deductively that racism is society-wide; policy solutions
Variation in thinking at every age
Advanced logic in adolescence is counterbalanced by the increasing power of intuitive, dual-processing thinking
•Rational judgment is difficult when egocentric emotions dominate.
•Experience in decision making and thinking facilitates more accurate use of analysis.
Rewards & Reasons
•Cortical regions (impulse control and planning) mature through early adulthood.
•Subcortical regions (emotional novelty and reward) are most responsive in middle adolescence.
Adolescents become less impulsive as they mature, but they still enjoy the thrill of a new sensation.
•Intuitive decisions are not always best.
•With maturity, adolescents gradually balance formal analytic thinking and emotional, experiential thinking.
•Quicker, emotional, intuitive thinking is sometimes better than analytic thought.
With decreasing price, the smartphone has been particularly important at creating digital natives among low-SES adolescents of every ethnic group.
•Discrepancies in number and quality of devices still follow SES lines.
•Most notable digital divide is now age.
Technology and Cognition
•Technology may speed up education during the adolescent years.
•It also may subvert some kinds of learning or learning processes (e.g., reflection and analytic thinking), especially as this relates to evaluation of what is seen on the screen.
•Older, unknown, online predators are rare.
•Solicited online abuse is less than 1 percent and most often occurs with known person (e.g., friend, coach, clergy, relative.)
•Sexual harassment in social networking is common, especially after a breakup.
•Discussion is often directed to moral outrage against an individual rather than to sexism and homophobia.
For some adolescents, online chat, message boards, gaming, and Internet gambling can become addictive.
•Time is taken from needed play, schoolwork, and friendship.
•Reviewing research from many nations, one team of researchers report addiction rates from 0 and 26 percent .
•The variation was caused more by differing definitions and procedures among participants
Adolescent cognitive growth benefits from shared experiences and opinions.
•Often communication via the Internet bolsters fragile self-esteem.
•Adolescents sometimes share personal information online without thinking
•Bullying occurs when one person repeatedly spreads insults or rumors about another by means of social media posts, e-mails, text messages, or cell phone videos.
•The anonymity provided by electronic technology often brings out the worst in people.
•Cyberbullying may contribute to dangerous, self-destructive behavior of victim.
•All forms of bullying are affected by school climate.
As many as 30 percent of adolescents report receiving sexting photos, with marked variation by school, gender, and ethnicity—and often in attitude.
•Pictures may be forwarded without the naked person's knowledge.
•Senders who deliberately send erotic self-images risk serious depression if the reaction is not what they wished.
•Period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college)
•Usually occurs from about age 12 to age 18, although the age range varies somewhat by school and by nation
•School for children in the grades between elementary and high school
•Usually begins with grade 5 or 6
Increasing Behavioral Problems
•For many middle school students, academic achievement slows down and behavioral problems increase.
•Decline in school interest and engagement
•Change in student-teacher engagement
The first year in any new school (middle school, high school, or college) correlates with increased bullying, decreased achievement, depression, and eating disorders.
•Transition from one school to another often affects ability to function and learn.
•Changing schools just when the growth spurt is occurring and sexual characteristics are developing is bound to create stress.
•Mismatch between egocentrism and changing school structure
•Public acclaim difficult and many students seek peer acceptance
•Competitive athletic teams may be too difficult for children with fragile egos
Coping with Middle School
•Entity approach to intelligence (hidden curriculum)
•Incremental approach to intelligence
•Involves evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure
•Determines if a student will graduate or be promoted
• Teachers assume students have mastered formal thinking, instead of teaching how to do it.
•Increased classes assessed by externally scored exams do not assure college readiness.
Secondary students in the United States take many more tests than they did even a decade ago—including high-stakes tests.
Alternatives to College
•About 30 percent of U.S. high school graduates do not go to college.
•Only 37 percent of U.S. students earn a B.S. degree 10 years post high school graduation with a lower rate in large cities.
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)
•International test taken by 15-year-olds in 50 nations that is designed to measure problem solving and cognition in daily life
•Overall, the U.S. students did worse on the PISA than on the PIRLS or TIMSS.
PISA correlates with high achievement.
•Overall, all stakeholders value education, and individualized learning approaches are used.
•Standards are high and clear.
•Teachers and administrators are valued.
•Learning is prioritized across the entire system.
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