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superficial layer of the skin; composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.


layer of skin deep to the epidermis; composed of dense irregular tissue.


(superficial fascia) subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin; consists of adipose plus some areolar connective tissue.


fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that make those structures hard and water-repellent; precursor is keratohyaline.


Dark pigment formed by cells called melanocytes; imparts color to skin and hair


yellow to orange pigment that accumulates in the stratum corneum epidermal layer and in fatty tissue of the hypodermis.


oxygen-transporting protein of erythrocytes.


(hairs) flexible strands produced by hair follicles and consist largely of dead, keratinized cells.

Arrector Pili

Tiny, smooth muscles attached to hair follicles, contraction causes the hair to stand upright.

Vellus Hair

(wool, fleece) The body hair of children and adult females; pale

Terminal Hair

coarser, longer hair of the eyebrows and scalp; darker. During puberty, they appear in the axillary and pubic regions in both sexes and on the face and chest. Grow in response to the stimulating effects of the male sex hormones called androgens and when male hormones are present in large amounts, this hair grows luxuriant.




scalelike modification of the epidermis that forms a clear protective covering on the dorsal surface of the distal part of a finger or toe.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

the least malignant and most common skin cancer; over 30% of all white people get it in their lifetime; occurs on sun exposed areas. proliferate, invading the dermis and hypodermis.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. Appears as scaly reddened papule that arises on the head and hands. grows rapidly and metastasize if not removed.


cancer of melanocytes, is the most dangerous skin cancer because it is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. accounts for 5% of skin cancers. appears as a spreading brown to black patch.

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