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54 terms

35 Respiratory System - terms

35 Respiratory System - terms
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Adventitious Breath Sound
Abnormal sound, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, fine and course crackles, pleural friction rubs, and stridor
asthma
Condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction due to antigen antibody reaction
atelectasis
collapse of a lung or portion of a lung
audible wheeze
Wheeze that can be heard without the aid of a telescope
bronchial sound
Loud, high-pitched, hollow-sounding breath sound normally heard over the sternum, longer on expiration than inspiration
bronchiectasis
Lung disorder characterized by chronic dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchial treea ccompanied by hypersecretion of mucous
bronchovesicular sound
Breath sound normally heard in the area of the scapula and near the sternum; medium in pitched blowing sound with inspiratory and expiratory phases of equal length.
caseation
Process by where the center of the primary tubercle formed in the lungs as a result of tuberculosis becomes soft and cheese-like due to decreased perfusion
cavitation
.Process by whereby a cavity is created in the lung tissue through the liquefication and rupture of a primary tubercle
chemoreceptor
Repector that monitors the levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH in the blood.
coarse crackle (rales)
Moist, low-pitched crackling and gurgling lung sound of long duration
diffusion
.Process whereby a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
emphysema
.Lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs
empyema
A collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).
epistaxis
Hemorrhage of the nares or nostrils (nose bleed)
external respiration
Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs
fine crackle (rales)
Dry, high-pitched crackling and popping lung sounds of short duration
hemopneumothorax
Presence of blood and air within the pleural space.
hemothorax
Condition wherein blood accumulations in the pleural space of the lungs
internal respiration
Exchange of Oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
liquefaction necrosis
Death and subsequent change of tissue to a liquid or semi-liquid state; often descriptive of a primary tubercle
lung stretch receptor
Receptor that monitors the patterns of breathing and prevents overexpansion of the lungs
perfusion
Blood flow through an organ or body part
pleural effusion
Collection of fluid within the pleural cavity
pleural friction rub
Abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration
pleurisy
Condition arising from inflammation of the pleura or sac that encases the lung
pneumonia
Inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudate in drainage
pneumothorax
Condition whereain air or gas accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs causing the lungs to collapse
primary tubercle
Nodule that contains tubercle bacilli and forms within lung tissue
respiration
Process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide
sibilant wheeze
Abnormal breath sound that is high pitched and musical in nature and is heard in inhalation and exhalation
sonorous wheeze (rhonchi)
Abnormal breath sound that is low pitched and snoring in nature and is louder on expiration
status asthmaticus
Persistent, intractable asthma attack
stridor
High pitched, harsh sound heard on inspiration when the trachea or larynx is obstructed
surfactant
Phospholipids that are present in the lunges and lower surface tension to prevent collapse of the airways
ventilation
Movement of gases into and out of the lungs
vesicular sound
Heard over the majority of the lung. Soft, breezy low-pitched sound heard longer on inspirtation than expiration resulting from air moving through the smaller airways over the lung periphery, with the exception of the scapular area
Eupnea
Normal Breathing
Apnea
Cessation of breathing, possibly temporary in nature
Dyspnea
Labored or difficult breathing, possibly normal if associated with exercise
Bradypnea
Abnormally slow breathing
Tachypnea
Abnormally rapid breathing
Orthopnea
Discomfort or difficulty with breathing in any but an upright sitting or standing position
Kussmaul's Respirations
Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by irregular periods of increased rate and depth of respiration; most often seen with diabetic ketoacidosis
Blot's respirations
Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by irregular periods of apnea alternating with short periods of respiration of equal depth; most commonly seen with increased intracranial pressure.
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by initially slow, shallow respirations that increase in rapidity and depth and then gradually decrease until respiration stops for 10 to 60 seconds; pattern then repeats itself in the same manner.
Anoxia
Without Oxygen
Hypoxia
Lack of adequate oxygen in inspired air such as occurs at high altitude
Hypoxemia
Insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood possibly due to respiratory, cardiovascular or anemia related disorders
Cyanosis
Bluish, grayish or purplish discoloration of the skin caused by abnormal amounts of reduced (oxygen-poor) hemoglobin in the blood; not always a reliable indicator of hypoxia
Acrocyanosis
Cyanosis of the fingertips and toes; often caused by vasomotor disturbances associated with vasoconstriction
Circumoral cyanosis
Bluish discoloration encircling the mouth
Oxygen saturation
Amount of oxygen combined with hemoglobin