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56 terms

Understanding Nutrition Chapter 4

The carbohydrates: sugars, starches, and fibers.
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Carbohydrates
compounds co, compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms arranged as monosaccharides. usually in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbo - carbon, hydrate - with water
Simple Carbs
monosaccharides and disacchardes.
Complex carbs (starches and fibers)
polysaccharides composed of straight or branches chains of monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
single sugars, single sugar molecules. Carbs of the general formula CnH2nOn that typically form a single ring. mono - one, saccharide - sugar. Glucose, fructose, and galactose
Disaccharides
Sugars composed of monosaccharides. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
Polysaccharides
large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides. poly - many. Glycogen, starches, and fibers.
Carbon
4 bonds
Nitrogen
3 bonds
Oxygen
2 bonds
Hydrogen
1 bond
Maltose
glucose + glucose
Sucrose
Glucose + fructose
Lactose
Glucose + galactose
Fructose
a monosaccharide. sometimes known as levulose. Found abundantly in fruits, honey and sap. fruct - fruit
Galactose
a monosaccharide. part of the disaccharide lactose
Glucose
a monosaccharide. sometimes known as blood sugar as dextrose. ose- carb
Disaccharides
pairs of monosaccharides linked together. di- two
Condensation
a chemical reaction in which 2 reactants combine to yield a larger product
Maltose
disaccharide composed of 2 glucose units. Sometimes known as malt sugar.
Sucrose
a disaccharide made from glucose and fructose; table sugar. Sucro - sugar
Hydrolysis
to break a disaccharide into two. A molecule of water splits to provide the H and OH needed to complete the monosaccharide.
Lactose
a disaccharide compose of glucose and galactose. Commonly known as milk sugar. lact - milk
Glycogen
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of glucose. manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. Not a significant food source of carbs and is not a complex carb. glyco- glucose, gen- gives rise to
Starches
plant polysaccharides composed of glucose
Dietary fibers
in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. Dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages as well as the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.
Soluble fibers
indegestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel. an is example is pectin from fruti, which is used to thicken jellies. slows peristalsis.
Fermentable
the extent to which bacteria in the gi tract can break down fibers to fragments that the body can use
Insoluble fibers
indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. example include the togh fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and skins of corn kernels. Promotes bowel movements and alleviate constipation.
Resistant starches
starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people.
Phytic acid
a non nutrient component of plant seeds; also call phylate. it occurs in the husks of grain, legumes, and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesim, and coppin in insoluble complexes in the intestine which the body excretes unused
Dextrins
The short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch are known as ____________.
Amylase
an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose ( a form of starch). Amylase is a carbohydrase ( enzyme that breaks down carbs)
Satiety
feeling of satisfaction after each meal; when it diminishes, you eat again
Maltase
enzyme that breaks down maltose
Sucrase
an enzyme that breaks down sucrose
Lactase
An enzyme that breaks down lactose
Lactose intolerance
the inability to completely digest the milk sugar lactose. Caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.
Lactase deficiency
a lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)
Kefir
fermetned milke created by lacobacillus acidphilus and other bacteria that break down lactose into glucose and galactose producing a sweet lactose free product
Gluconeogenesis
formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. gluco - glucose, neo- new, genesis - making.
Protein-sparing action
the action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.
Glucose
Preferred source for brain, nerve cells, and to develop red cells.
Ketone bodies
the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells
Ketosis
an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine
Acid base balance
equilibrium between acid and base concentrations in the body fluids
Insulin
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose. Primary role is to control the transport of glucose from the blood into muscle and fat cells.
Glucagon
A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate blood sugar by releasing glucose out of storage
Epinephrine
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
Diabetes
a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin
Type I diabetes
the pancreas fails to produce insulin
Type II diabetes
cells fail to respond to the insulin usually in response to obesity
Hypoglycemia
an abnormally low blood glucose concentration marked by weakness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, anxiety, hunger, and trembling.
Glycemic response
The extent to which food raises the the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response.
Glycemic index
a method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose
Added sugars
sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparations
Serotonin
neurotransmitter that affects sleep, arousal, mood, appetite; lack of it is linked with depression