# Public Health Test #3

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1. Which infection continues to increase in the United States?
a. Measles
b. Pertussis
c. Hepatitis A, B, and C
d. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
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Terms in this set (54)
ANS: D
Treatable STDs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, are still occurring at significant rates. Gonorrhea had plateaued or declined until 2009 but increased steadily since that time. Chlamydia, the most commonly reported bacterial disease in the United States, reached 1,441,789 cases in 2014, although some of this increase is thought to be the result of improved screening for the infection,
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remember (Knowledge)
2. Which best describes what is happening with infectious diseases in the United States?
a. There is a continuing decrease in vector-borne infections.
b. There is a continuing increase in food-borne and waterborne infections.
c. Many airborne diseases are being spread by bioterrorists.
d. The rate of infection varies extensively by income and ethnic groups.
ANS: D
Probably one of the most profound failures in infectious disease control in the United States and elsewhere is that the successes are not equally distributed in the general population. Infectious diseases continue to be differentially distributed by income and ethnic groups, and the poor and minorities continue to experience the greater burden. There continues to be an increase in vector-borne infections, but there has been a decrease in food-borne and waterborne infections. There is concern that deadly pathogens will be weaponized by terrorists.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
Which statement is true concerning tuberculosis (TB) infections in the United States?
a. Subclinical cases of TB can occur in patients who fight off the infection and thus
are not a danger to themselves or others.
b. TB can be cured by a 6-month period of treatment with INH.
c. TB can only be caused by the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus.
d. Under certain conditions, susceptible hosts may be infected by the TB bacillus.
ANS: D
The principle of multicausation emphasizes that an infectious agent alone is not sufficient to cause disease; the agent must be transmitted within a conducive environment to a susceptible host. Mycobacterium tuberculosis kills cells. M. tuberculosis has low infectivity, low pathogenicity, but high virulence if untreated.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
One child in a kindergarten room had a slight fever and did not eat lunch. Otherwise, the child seemed OK. Three days later, several children were absent from kindergarten. Which best describes what happened?
a. Another nursery school was offering the same child care at a much lower price.
b. Infectious diseases can be contagious before any diagnostic symptoms occur.
c. No way to tell; there are many reasons why parents keep children home.
d. Parents chose to protect their children from the child with a fever, so they kept
their children home for a few days.
ANS: B
Frequently, the communicable period begins before symptoms are present. The communicable period, or communicability, follows latency and begins with shedding of the agent. The incubation period is the time from invasion to the time when disease symptoms first appear. Thus, even if parents kept their children away from the child with the fever, this could possibly be ineffective because their children may have already been exposed before the child exhibited symptoms. It is unlikely that the children suddenly changed schools. Although, there may be many reasons why parents keep their children home from school, in this situation there is a specific reason that can be identified.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
Which best describes why clinical areas are so careful to ensure sanitization of surfaces and equipment between each patient?
a. To avoid direct patient-to-patient transmission of infection
b. To provide a clean environment for clients and staff
c. To decrease transmission by fomites
d. To decrease transmission by vectors
Which is the first step in preventing further spread of a particular sexually transmitted disease (STD)?
a. Have a citywide free screening program in all high schools and colleges
b. Provide public education about safe sex from abstinence to monogamous
relationships
c. Require all public facilities to sanitize all restrooms with a stronger, more effective
agent
d. Treat each infected person with the appropriate pharmaceutical agent
ANS: D
Antiinfective drugs, such as antibiotics, antivirals, antiretrovirals, and antimalarials, play important roles in controlling infectious diseases. Not only do they permit recovery of the infected person, but they also play a major role in preventing transmission of the pathogens to another. The first step in preventing transmission of tuberculosis and syphilis is to treat the infected person with antibiotics. Because the question asks about further spread, infection in a person has been diagnosed, so education is needed, but it is too late for that person. Adults not in school also are infected with STDs. A stronger, more effective sanitizing agent would not be the most effective strategy to prevent spread of STDs.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
A patient walks into a community clinic complaining of severe intestinal cramps and diarrhea.
Which action can be taken to protect the staff at the clinic?
a. Refuse to see anyone that sick as clinics have a different mission than secondary
and tertiary care of the obviously ill
b. Send the patient immediately to the closest hospital emergency department
c. Treat the patient with broad-spectrum antibiotics and lots of fluids
d. Use universal precautions with all patients regardless of the situation
ANS: D
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a set of guidelines, called universal precautions, to prevent transmission of diseases found in blood and other body fluids. These guidelines were developed because infected people may be asymptomatic and have no knowledge of their conditions; therefore, health care workers must assume that all patients are infectious and protect themselves, other health care workers, and other patients. Refusing to treat the patient, sending the patient to an emergency department, or treating the patient with antibiotics and fluids would not be appropriate measures to protect the staff.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
A school had tried very hard to uphold the requirement for all children to be vaccinated. However, state law allowed parents to exempt their child if they had a religious reason for refusal. Two children have been diagnosed with chickenpox. Which will be the most likely result?
a. Adults as well as children in the neighborhood will get chickenpox.
b. All the children who played with the two sick children will probably get chickenpox.
c. All the unimmunized children will probably come down with chickenpox.
d. Few children will get chickenpox because of herd immunity.
ANS: D
Herd immunity is a state in which those not immune to an infectious agent will be protected if a certain proportion (generally considered to be 80%) of the population has been vaccinated or is otherwise immune. Because most children in the school are immune, it will be difficult for the chickenpox to spread.DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
Which statement best explains how infectious diseases are different from any other health problem?
a. Infectious diseases are easier to treat by using pharmaceuticals.
b. Infectious diseases are more prevalent now than in the past.
c. Infectious diseases are acute illnesses that catch clients unprepared.
d. Infectious diseases have the potential to spread, creating a community emergency.
ANS: D
Because of their potential to spread and cause communitywide or worldwide emergencies, infectious diseases require organized, public efforts for their prevention and control. Most human diseases (e.g., cancer or diabetes) can be classified as personal health problems. Individuals with a personal health problem can be treated by the health care system one person at a time. By contrast, infectious diseases are categorized as public or community
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
19. Which would be one of the first steps in attempting to control a disease?
a. Create an appropriate screening test for widespread use
b. Define what the disease looks like in confirmed or probable cases
c. Determine the disease's portal of entry and portal of exit
d. Measure the extent of its spread geographically
ANS: B
Standardized definitions of diseases are necessary for public health monitoring and surveillance across all levels of government. Diseases are defined and classified according to confirmed cases, probable cases, laboratory-confirmed cases, clinically compatible cases, epidemiologically linked cases, genetic typing, and clinical case definition. Once defined, disease occurrence can be compared across time, populations, and geographic areas, and appropriate control efforts can be implemented.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)