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Definitions

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Body Fossils
Remnants of Organisms
Such as frozen mammoth, bones, clam shells, carbonized leaves
Trace Fossils
Traces of an organisms actiivty
* They are always formed at the site in which they are found
Examples: Ichnofossils, Footprints, Nests, Burrows, dung
Organosedimentary Structures
Stromatolites
Biomarkers
* Stable Molecules, Lipids, Biosynthetic Origin, Isotopic Ratio
Biostratigraphy
Involved in Dating the Rocks
Paleobiology
Also known as evolutionary Biology
* It documents the history of life and its evolutionary process
Palaeoecology
Deals with the reconstruction of paleoenvironment
Palaeogeography
Deals with the reconstruction of plate positions
Paleontology
Known as a Historical Science
* Study of the forms of life that existed in prehistoric times.
* Scientists are not able to run experiments in this science because there is nothing to experiment - (there is no way to go back in time, and thus they are able to compare results and data from the prehistoric times)
Taphonomy
The study of the environmental conditions affecting the preservation of animal and plant remains
Diagenesis
The PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL changes occurring in sediments between the times of deposition and solidification
Permineralization
Process of fossilization in which mineral deposits from internal casts of an organism
Recrystallization
The act or process of crystallizing; a crystallized body or formation; replacement of one mineral by another mineral that has the same chemical composition as the original mineral
Replacement
The process of practically simultaneous removal and deposition by which a NEW mineral grows in the body of an OLD one
Carbonization
The formation of carbon from organic matter; thin film of carbon remaining in the bedding place
Biomineralization
Process by which LIVING organisms PRODUCE minerals, often to HARDER or STIFFEN existing tissues
Cladistics
Classification of Organisms based on the BRANCHING of descendants lineages from a common ancestor
Cladogram
A branching DIAGRAM depicting the successive points of species divergence from common ancestral lines WITHOUT regard to the degree of deviation
** SHOWS EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS
What is the difference between ADVANCED and DERIVED?
The Use of the word "Derived" is used rather than "Advanced"

E.g. - Fur is a "derived" character that occurs only in mammals
Parallel Evolution
The INDEPENDENT development of closely corresponding adaptive features in 2 or more groups of organisms that occupy DIFFERENT but EQUIVALENT habitats.
E.g. - Marsupial Mammals in Australia and Placental Mammals on other continents.
Homologous
Organisms in which STRUCTURE and ORIGIN is the SAME but not necessarily function.
Analogous
Organisms in which FUNCTION is the SAME but they are not evolved from corressponding organs
Rubisco
Enzyme that chooses 12C over 13C
Lagerstatte
A fossilifenus sedimentary deposit in which the fossils exhibit EXTRAORDINARY PRESERVATION
Extant
In Existance; Still Existing; Not destroyed or Lost; standing out or protruding.
Exaptation
A feature having a function for which it was NOT originally ADAPTED or SELECTED; a morphological or physiological feature that predisposes an organism to adapt to a different environment or lifestyle.
Holotype
The type of specimen used in the ORIGINAL description of a species
Paratype
A specimen OTHER than a type of SPECIMEN that is used for the original (NOT ORIGINAL) description of a taxonomic group and specifically stated to be the one on which the original description of the taxon was based.
Hierarchy of Classification of Organisms
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

*King Phil Can Order Family Gene[s]"