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Pharmacology - Chapter One
Terms in this set (26)
Minimum Effective Concentration(MEC)
Amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect.
Minimum Toxic Concentration (MTC)
The base level of blood serum concentration that produces dose-related toxic effects
Steady Rate Concentration
Infusion of drug is in equilibrium with rate of loss
Peak and Trough
Used for drugs with narrow therapeutic inde
Cmax - concentration in blood is highest
The point at which the lowest amount of drug is in the serum
Produces a reaction or effect on the CNS
Produces no effect on the CNS, and prevents some other substance from having an effect
Reactions to medicine other than the one intended
Accumulation of medication in the bloodstream
A condition in which the body produces antibodies to foreign material such as food, plant pollens, or medication
An abnormal and unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient.
Drug-induced birth defect
Ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its target tissues in unchanged form
The science of preparing and dispensing drugs, including dosage form design.
THE STUDY OF FOUR BASIC PROCESSES OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION IN RESPONSE TO DRUGS
How the drug affects the body (primary or secondary effect)
Drug is given in large initial dose to achieve a rapid MEC (minimum effective concentration) or therapeutic level in the plasma.
A progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug.
The nurse recognizes that the administration of a drug influences cell physiology. What is the term for this concept?
The nurse is administering an injection to a patient and wants the medication to take effect as quickly as possible. Which injection site will the nurse select?
The pharmacist states that the patient's biotransformation of a drug was altered. The nurse interprets this to mean that
Metabolism connotes a breakdown of a product. Biotransformation is actually a more accurate term because some drugs are actually changed into an active form in the liver in contrast to being broken down for excretion. Biotransformation of a drug does not occur during absorption, nor with dilution, nor during excretion.
A nurse is administering two highly protein-bound drugs to the patient. Which is the safest course of action for the nurse to take?
When two highly protein-bound drugs are given concurrently, they compete for protein-binding sites, thus causing more free drug to be released into the circulation. In this situation, drug accumulation and possible drug toxicity can result. Also, a low serum protein level decreases the number of protein-binding sites and can cause an increase in the amount of free drug in the plasma. Drug toxicity may then result. Drug dose is prescribed according to the percentage in which the drug binds to protein.
A patient is complaining of pain rated "10" on a scale of 1 to 10. The nurse has several choices of pain medication to administer. Which order is the best for the nurse to administer at this time?
Morphine sulfate 1 mg IV (intravenous)
The nurse is administering medications to a patient with chronic renal failure. What is the nurse's priority action?
The kidneys are responsible for the majority of drug excretion. With excretion impaired, the medication can remain in the system longer, and there is more chance for toxicity to develop.
The nurse has administered several oral medications to the patient. Which factors will influence the absorption of these medications? (Select all that apply.)
Presence of food in the stomach Correct
pH of the stomach Correct
Patient position upon intake of medication
Form of drug preparation Correct
Amount of saliva
The presence of food in the stomach usually decreases absorption of drugs but may increase absorption for a few specific medications. The pH of the stomach affects absorption of drugs dependent on the pH of the drug. Alkaline drugs are absorbed more readily in an alkaline environment, and acidic drugs are absorbed more readily in an acidic environment. The form of the drug also affects absorption, with liquid drugs being absorbed the fastest and enteric-coated tablets the slowest. Pain can affect absorption by slowing gastric emptying time. Position will not influence absorption. Amount of saliva will not influence absorption.
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