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Histology - Cartilage and Bone

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Chondrocyte
This cell lives in lacunae of cartilage.
Type II cartilage
Type of collagen found in cartilage
Keratin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate
The types of GAGs found in cartilage
Chondronectin
This cartilage protein mediates binding to collagen
Water
This substance gives cartilage its shock absorbing properties.
Territorial matrix
The area immediately surrounding the lacunae of a chondrocyte. Has a higher concentration of GAGs
False
True/False?
Small capillaries deliver nutrients to the chondrocyte from the circulatory system.
Interterritorial matrix
Area between chondrocytes with relatively lower concentration of GAGs
Perichondrium
The dense CT covering the surface of cartilage,
EXCEPT articular cartilage.
Fibroblasts and progenitor cells
What cell types make up the fibrous layer of perichondrium?
Type I and II collagen
What CT fibers make up fibrous perichondrium matrix?
True
T/F?
There are many blood vessels in the fibrous layer of perichondrium.
Chondroblasts and progenitor cells
What cell types make up the chondrogenic layer of perichondrium?
Type II collagen
What CT fibers make up the chondrogenic layer of perichondrium?
Perichondrium
The purpose of this structure is to:
-provide nutrition to associated tissue
-provide area of attachment to tendon and ligament
-Grows and repairs cartilage
Appositional growth
Growth in width of cartilage by adding additional layers of cells and matrix.
Chondroblast
This cell actively secretes cartilaginous matrix and becomes entrapped.
Chondrocyte
This cell is a former chondroblast entrapped in matrix.
Interstitial growth
Growth of cartilage from within. Chondrocytes undergo mitosis and daughter cells secrete more matrix.
Isogenous groups
A nest of chondrocytes derived from one progenitor cell.
Hyaline cartilage
Most common type of cartilage
Hyaline cartilage
This cartilage is found in:
-articular cartilage
-larynx, trachea, bronchi
-cartilage precursor for bone
Type II collagen
Type of collagen found in hyaline cartilage
Keratin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate
GAGs found in hyaline cartilage
Chondronectin
This protein binds chondrocytes to cartilage
Keratin sulfate
This GAG increase the firmness of cartilage by binding water
Elastic cartilage
This cartilage resembles hyaline cartilage but contains a purple filament when stained with Verhoeff's
Elastic cartilage
This cartilage is found in:
-auricle of ear
-epiglottis
-eustacian tube
-auditory tube
Fibrillin and elastin
Elastic fibers are formed from...
Fibrocartilage
This cartilage is found in:
-intervertebral disks
-pubic symphisis
-TMJ
Fibrocartilage
This cartilage looks like dense irregular CT except for presence of chondrocytes.
Type I and II collagen
Fibrocartilage contains what collagen fibers?
Bone
This tissue contains a calcified matrix mixed with secreted osteoid.
Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone.
Metaphysis
Growth zone of a bone during development.
Epiphysis
ends of a long bone
Compact bone
Very dense bone that lines the edges and thickens in the middle.
Cancellous bone
This bone contains trebeculae (plates of osseous tissue + spicules)
Newly-formed bone
This type of bone is more cellular and has a random arrangement of fine collagen fibers
Mature bone
This type of bone has an organized lamellar arrangement of collagen fibers.
Bone sutures and sockets of teeth
These two features are not replaced with mature bone during development
Periosteum
Dense CT and osteoblast covering on the outer surface of bone. Has a fibrous and osteogenic layer.
Sharpey's fibers
Bundles of collagen that attach periostium to bone
Periosteum
The function of this structure is to:
-mediate appositional growth of bone
-bone repair
-attachment site for ligament and tendons
-sensation
Endosteum
The single layer of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitors covering the internal surface of bone
Osteoprogenitor
Flattened endosteum cell that is precursor to osteoblast
Osteoblast
A cuboidal cell that is part of the endosteum
Osteocyte
What lives in the lacunae of bone?
Canaliculi
Small channels that allow communication between lacunae as well as Haversian canals in bone
Hydroxyapatite
This crystal of calcium and phosphate forms the inorganic matrix of bone
Type I collagen and GAGs
What is present in the osteoid of bone?
True
T/F?
Bones are highly vascularized.
False
T/F?
Vascular systems in bone are established after matrix deposition.
Haversian system
This includes the concentric layers of bone and the containing canal
Haversian canal
Space that runs parallel to long bone and contains vasculature, loose CT, and nerves.
Concentric lamellae
The spiral organization of collagen
Volkmann's canal
This allows a Haversian canal to communicate with:
-adjacent systems
-periosteum
-bone marrow cavity
True
T/F?
Volkmann's canals are not surrounded by lemellae, they actually pass through.
Outer circumferential lamellae
The outer most ring of lamellae.
Interstitial lamellae
Incomplete lamellae located between systems.
Cement line
the outer line that separates Haversian systems.
Cancellous bone
This type of bone is located in:
-central region of diaphysis
-diploe of flat bones
-spongiosa of alveolar process
Osteoblast
This cell type secretes alkaline phosphase in bone
Osteoclast
This cell type secretes acid phosphatase in bone
Howship's lacunae
The cavity created by osteoclasts in bone
Monocytes
Osteoclasts are derived from...
Silver stain
This stain is used to ID reticular fibers
Synovial joint
This type of joint allows for movement between the ends of two bones
Mesoderm
What is the germ origin of the cells that secrete lubricating synovial fluid
Non-synovial joint
A joint that is not freely moving. Connected by dense CT.
Osteoblast
What cell type place a major role in paracrine signaling of osteoclasts.
Cortisol
A glucocorticoid hormone that leads to osteoperosis (inhibited osteoblast activity)
Growth hormone
Secreted by pituitary gland and stimulates osteoblasts
PTH
This hormone stimulates both osteoblast and osteoclast. Released in response to low serum Ca levels.
T3/T4
Released by thyroid and stimulates osteoblasts in response to increasing serum Ca levels
Estradiol
Stimulates osteoblasts and clasts and its absence leads to osteoperosis