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In the 1970s, one million college-bound students were surveyed and asked to compare themselves to their peers. Some of the key findings of the survey were as follows:
a. 70% of the students rated themselves as above average in leadership ability, while only 2% rated themselves as below average in this regard.
b. With respect to athletic skills, 60% of the students rated their skills as above the median and only 6% of students rated themselves as below the median.
c. 60% of the students rated themselves in the top 10% in terms of their ability to get along with others, while 25% of the students felt that they were in the top 1% in terms of this interpersonal skill.
What type of cognitive bias reveals itself in the data mentioned above? How might this cognitive bias adversely influence a manager's planning, controlling, and decision-making activities? What steps could managers take to reduce the possibility that this cognitive bias would adversely influence their actions?