27 terms

Health Ch.1

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DEFINITIONS OF "HEALTH"
-Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

-The overall condition of body or mind and the presence of absence of illness or injury.
Wellness
-Optimal health and vitality, encompassing all the dimensions of well-being

*7 dimensions- all inter-related
Physical
Emotional
Intellectual
Interpersonal-social
Spiritual
Environmental
Financial
Morbidity rate
The relative incidence of disease among a population.
-illness, injury, expresses rates, states, numbers
-includes injury
Mortality rate
The number of deaths in population in a given period of time.
-death rates
Infectious disease
Conditions caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.
-contracted by humans
Chronic disease
A disease that develops and continues over a long time.
*leading causes of death
-All people:#1 heart disease
-Teens (15-24): accidents/unintentional injuries, cars, alcohol
Incidence
Measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.

-Answers the questions: "How many people per year newly acquire this disease?".
Prevalence
The proportion of a population found to have a condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
It is arrived at by comparing the number of people found to have the condition with the total number of people studied, and is usually expressed as a fraction, as a percentage or as the number of cases per 10,000 or 100,000 people

-Answers the question: "How many people have this disease right now?"
US Life Expectancy
#42 AGE 79 found in CIA world factbook
South Africa #222 AGE 49- not 3rd world country like people think
5 Leading causes of death for age group 15-24
-unintentional injury
-homicide
-suicide
-malignant neoplasms (cancer)
-heart disease
Levels of prevention
*Primary prevention: strategies emphasize general health promotion, risk factor reduction,
and other health protective measures. Measures meant to elliminate injury and illness
-Some examples of primary prevention include:
--Immunization
--Public health education
--Chlorination and filtration of public water
--Laws (i.e. seatbelts, child safety seats)

*Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and treatment of disease. Its purpose is to cure
disease, slow progression, or reduce impact on individuals or communities. Short term, acute care.
-Some examples of secondary prevention include:
--BSE, TSE, Mammography, Colonoscopy
--Screening for Hypertension, Diabetes, HIV
--Medical interventions (going to DOC)

*Tertiary prevention seeks to reduce the impact caused by the disease on the patient's function,
longevity, and quality of life. Long term. Not always cured, treated to an extent.
-Some examples of tertiary prevention include:
--Cardiac rehabilitation
--Physical and Occupational therapy
--Follow-up exams
Social Determinants
**Factors Influencing Health Behavior Choices

*Personal - genetics, age, gender, and education

*Environmental
-Interpersonal - co-workers, family, and peers

-Community/Social - physical environment, education, transportation, access to health care, work conditions, urban design, and SES

-Public policy - national, state, and local laws, Healthy People 2020, FDA, USDA, EPA, and CDC
Public Health & Community Health
*Public Health
-Focuses on the health of populations of people rather than individuals, wide spread, VA

*Community Health
-Aims to improve the health of those people within a defined community (government or private), focused, defined, Harrisonburg
Disease Prevention
The process of providing tools that people and communities need to protect their health by reducing risks; promoting health; preventing disease, injury, and disability; and preparing for new health threats
-reduce health risks
Health Promotion
The process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health.

*Determinants: might put you at risk for disease (genetics, age)
10 Great Public Health Achievements
of the Past Century
-vaccinations
-motor vehicle safety
-safer workplaces
-control of infectious diseases
-safer and healthier foods
-healthier mothers and babies
-family planning
-flouridation of drinking water
-recognition of tobacco as a health hazard
-reduced deaths from heart attack and stroke
Health Issues for Diverse Populations
Sex and gender
Ethnicity
Income and education
Disability
Geographic location
Sexual orientation
The Healthy People Initiative
*Healthy People 2020
-Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
-Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
-Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
-Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life

*Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators & Priority Issues
-physical activity
-obesity
-tobacco use
-substance abuse
-responsible sexual behavior
-mental health
-injury and violence
-environmental quality
-immunization
-access to health care

****Know goals
Factors that influence wellness
-Health habits
- Heredity/family history
-Environment
- Access to health care
-Taking personal responsibility for your wellness
Reaching Wellness through Lifestyle Management
-Getting serious about your health
-Examine your current health habits
- Choose a target behavior
-Learn about your target behavior
- Find help
Building Motivation to Change
-Examine the pros and cons of change
-Boost self-efficacy
-- Locus of control (internal control versus external control)
-Visualization and self-talk
-Role models and supportive people
-Identify and overcome barriers to change
Enhancing Your Readiness to Change
*Transtheoretical or "Stages of Change" model
-Precontemplation
- Contemplation
- Preparation
- Action
- Maintenance
- Termination
***You will be given examples of these
Dealing with Lapse and Relapse
-Don't give up
-Return to a previous stage of the behavior change process if needed
-Reevaluate your goals and strategy if necessary
Developing Skills for Change: Creating a Personalized Plan
1-Monitor your behavior and gather data
2-Analyze the data and identify patterns
3-Devise a plan of action
--Get what you need
--Modify your environment
--Control related habits
--Reward yourself
--Involve the people around you
--Plan for challenges
4-Make a personal contract

**SMART acronym
Being Healthy for Life
-Maintaining good health is an ongoing process
-Keep informed about the latest health news
-There are some things you can't completely control
----Heredity
----Health care
----Environment
-Be active in promoting healthy lifestyles and environmental choices in others
Controversies in Health Care
**Health care crisis in the U.S.
Americans lag behind citizens of other wealthy nations in life expectancy, infant mortality, etc.

2008 - 47 million in U.S. without health insurance

Up to 45,000 die annually due to no insurance

62% of bankruptcies in '07 linked to health costs

Health care in America is rationed based on the ability to pay - should it be accessible to all?
Health Challenges in a Changing Society
Be an informed (and skeptical) consumer

Develop "health literacy" - the ability to read, understand, and act on medical information and learn to navigate the health care system

Understand and critically evaluate medical research studies (correlation vs. cause & effect; repeated results; sponsors of studies; peer-reviewed publications)

Understand current health concerns