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protection & due process are guarantede under?

14 th amendment

Brown v. Board of Education

cannot discriminate on basis of race

Diana v. State Board of Ed. 1070

children must be tested in native language

Wyatt v. Stickney 1971

established right to adequate treatment (education) for institutionalized person w/ mental retardation

Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1972

Special education was guaranteed to children w/ mental retardation..sparked cases for children w/ disabilities

Mills v. Board of ed. of District of Columbia 1972

right to special education was extended to all children w/ disabilities not just mentally retarded children

PL 93-112 - Rehabilitation Amendements 1073

first comprehensive federal statute to address specifically the rights of disabled youth - prohibited discrimination in education, employment & housing based on disability

504 of Rehabilitation Act 1973

expands protection to other areas that receive federal assistance (education)

PL 93-380 Education amendments 1974

requires states to provide full educational opportunities for children w/ disabilities

PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975

provided FAPE to all students w/ disabilities, defined special education & related services, & imposed rigid guidelines on provisions of services

Section 504 of PL 94-142

extended FAPE & all provisions PL 94-142 for services to preschool children (3-5) w/ disabilities

Larry P. v. Riles 1979

ordered reevaluation of black students enrolled in classes for (EMR) educable mentally retarded

PASC v. Hannon 1980

ruled IQ tests are necessarily biased against ethnic and racial sub-cutures

PL 99-457 (1986)

special education services required for children 3-5 & entire families needs addressed by Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) which is reviewed every 6 months

Honig v. Doe 1988

students may not be denied education or exclusion from school when their misbehavior is related to their handicap

how long can a student be suspended if they present an immediate threat to themselves or others?

10 days

Pl 101-336 (ADA) Americans w/ Disabilities Act 1990

gives civil right protection to individuals w/ disabilities in private sector employment & public services

PL 101-476 Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1990

reauthorized EHA, changed term handicapped to disability, expanded related services, & required IEP's to contain transitional goals and objectives for students 16 and up

IDEA 1997 reauthorization

participation of students w/ disabilities in statewide assessments, changes to IEP w/ emphasis on students participating in gen. ed., guarantee that no student w/ disability is deprived of education because of behavior

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 2002

addresses accountability for student achievement, every student demonstrate proficiency in reading, math, science

IDEA 2004

added new requirement for special education teachers on secondary level be highly qualified, assistive technology was devices amended to exclude devices surgically implanted (cochlear implants)

what must be provided in a written notice to parents when proposing educational placement?

a list of parental due process safeguards

zero reject requires?


IEP present levels address?

academic achievement & functional performance

developmental disabilities include?

congenital conditions (spinal bifida, deafness, blindness, profound intellectual disabilities) & children who contract diseases (polo, meningitis)

teacher might use a formal test to?

compare student progress w/ peers of same age or grade level on a national basis

best measure of a student's functional capabilities & entry level skills are?

criterion-referenced measures

acculturation refers to an individuals?

experiential background


introduction of a new skill


continued practice of a new skill


practice under supervision to achieve accuracy & speed


application of new skill in new settings & situations


study of significant units of speech sounds


study of smallest unit of language that CONVEY meaning


system of rules for making grammatically-correst sentences


study of relationships between words & grammatical forms in a language & their underlying meaning


language disorder


speech disorder


developmental disability significantly affecting verbal & non-verbal communication & social interaction

emotional disturbance

a) inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, health factors. B) inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships C) inappropriate behavior D) general unhappiness or depression E) tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated w/ school or personal problems

specific learning disability

disorder of one or more of basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in language

formal assessment

standardized tests w/ only one correct answer

informal assessment

less objective measures & can use observations...

norm-referenced tests

establish a ranking and compare student's performance an established norm (age or grade)

criterion-referenced tests

measures a student's knowledge of specific content

authentic or performance-based assessments

are designed to be as close to real-life as possible

rating scales & checklists

self-apparisal instruments completed by student or parents

momentary time sampling

used for measuring behaviors of a group of students or several behaviors from the same student

multiple baseline

used to measure effectiveness of intervention

IEP requirements

1. present level of academic & functional performance 2. annual goals 3.notification of progress to parents 4. modifications or accommodations in statewide assessments school activities & related services 6. projected dates for services 7. LRE 8. Transition needs for students 14 and up 9. Statement of responsibilities (who is responsible for)

pre-alphabetic phase

don't understand phoneme / letter correspondence, memorize visual features (word stop in stop sign)

partial-alphabetic phase

can name some letters and can apply different sounds to many consonants but cannot handle vowel sounds well and don't recognize common spelling patterns

full-alphabetic phase

good understanding of connection between graphemes and phonemes, can decode letter by letter and spell phonetically.

consolidated-alphabetic phase

tend to see words as whole units and use decoding skills in unison to decode unfamiliar words

automatic phase

decoding is automatic and word-level reading predominates

what legislator started FAPE?

section 504

consultant teacher

ability to supply specific instructional materials, programs, and methods on a regular basis in a regular ed classroom


two or more problem behaviors across different areas of functioning

fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement

after every third correct response in a row, produces a steady efficient production of responses for reinforcement

continuous reinforcement

forms a strong relationship between behavior and reinforcement, best for establishing a new habit

fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement

produces a high steady rate of responding to solidify new habits

intermittent reinforcement

use when behavior is established and only needs minimum reward for maintenance

intrinsic reinforcers

usually intangible reinforcers ( teacher feedback, task completion, sense of pride over mastery)

extrinsic reinforcers

tangible rewards from external source ( token reinforcers, social approval, pencils, stickers)


process of combining morphemes into meaningful words

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