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Wyatt v. Stickney 1971
established right to adequate treatment (education) for institutionalized person w/ mental retardation
Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Citizens (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1972
Special education was guaranteed to children w/ mental retardation..sparked cases for children w/ disabilities
Mills v. Board of ed. of District of Columbia 1972
right to special education was extended to all children w/ disabilities not just mentally retarded children
PL 93-112 - Rehabilitation Amendements 1073
first comprehensive federal statute to address specifically the rights of disabled youth - prohibited discrimination in education, employment & housing based on disability
504 of Rehabilitation Act 1973
expands protection to other areas that receive federal assistance (education)
PL 93-380 Education amendments 1974
requires states to provide full educational opportunities for children w/ disabilities
PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975
provided FAPE to all students w/ disabilities, defined special education & related services, & imposed rigid guidelines on provisions of services
Section 504 of PL 94-142
extended FAPE & all provisions PL 94-142 for services to preschool children (3-5) w/ disabilities
Larry P. v. Riles 1979
ordered reevaluation of black students enrolled in classes for (EMR) educable mentally retarded
PL 99-457 (1986)
special education services required for children 3-5 & entire families needs addressed by Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) which is reviewed every 6 months
Honig v. Doe 1988
students may not be denied education or exclusion from school when their misbehavior is related to their handicap
how long can a student be suspended if they present an immediate threat to themselves or others?
Pl 101-336 (ADA) Americans w/ Disabilities Act 1990
gives civil right protection to individuals w/ disabilities in private sector employment & public services
PL 101-476 Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 1990
reauthorized EHA, changed term handicapped to disability, expanded related services, & required IEP's to contain transitional goals and objectives for students 16 and up
IDEA 1997 reauthorization
participation of students w/ disabilities in statewide assessments, changes to IEP w/ emphasis on students participating in gen. ed., guarantee that no student w/ disability is deprived of education because of behavior
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 2002
addresses accountability for student achievement, every student demonstrate proficiency in reading, math, science
added new requirement for special education teachers on secondary level be highly qualified, assistive technology was devices amended to exclude devices surgically implanted (cochlear implants)
what must be provided in a written notice to parents when proposing educational placement?
a list of parental due process safeguards
developmental disabilities include?
congenital conditions (spinal bifida, deafness, blindness, profound intellectual disabilities) & children who contract diseases (polo, meningitis)
teacher might use a formal test to?
compare student progress w/ peers of same age or grade level on a national basis
best measure of a student's functional capabilities & entry level skills are?
study of relationships between words & grammatical forms in a language & their underlying meaning
developmental disability significantly affecting verbal & non-verbal communication & social interaction
a) inability to learn not explained by intellectual, sensory, health factors. B) inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships C) inappropriate behavior D) general unhappiness or depression E) tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated w/ school or personal problems
specific learning disability
disorder of one or more of basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in language
establish a ranking and compare student's performance an established norm (age or grade)
momentary time sampling
used for measuring behaviors of a group of students or several behaviors from the same student
1. present level of academic & functional performance 2. annual goals 3.notification of progress to parents 4. modifications or accommodations in statewide assessments 5.post school activities & related services 6. projected dates for services 7. LRE 8. Transition needs for students 14 and up 9. Statement of responsibilities (who is responsible for)
don't understand phoneme / letter correspondence, memorize visual features (word stop in stop sign)
can name some letters and can apply different sounds to many consonants but cannot handle vowel sounds well and don't recognize common spelling patterns
good understanding of connection between graphemes and phonemes, can decode letter by letter and spell phonetically.
tend to see words as whole units and use decoding skills in unison to decode unfamiliar words
ability to supply specific instructional materials, programs, and methods on a regular basis in a regular ed classroom
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
after every third correct response in a row, produces a steady efficient production of responses for reinforcement
forms a strong relationship between behavior and reinforcement, best for establishing a new habit
fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
produces a high steady rate of responding to solidify new habits
use when behavior is established and only needs minimum reward for maintenance
usually intangible reinforcers ( teacher feedback, task completion, sense of pride over mastery)
tangible rewards from external source ( token reinforcers, social approval, pencils, stickers)
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