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World History Study Guide Unit 1 Test
Ms. Kinder's World History Honors Study Guide questions and answers for Unit 1 Test Freshman year
Terms in this set (74)
What is prehistory?
Prehistory is the time before writing was developed.
What is the Paleolithic age?
The Paleolithic age is when Humans used simple stone tools;
People hunted & gathered for food; and when People were nomadic: they moved in order to survive.
What is the Neolithic age?
Occurs after the Neolithic Revolution: shift from hunting & gathering to systematic agriculture (growing food on a regular basis) & domestication of animals (adapting them for human use).
What is a nomad?
Someone who moved in order to survive.
What are the six characteristics of a civilization?
Cities, government, religion, social structure, writing and art are the six characteristics of a civilization.
Who were the Sumerians?
The Sumerians were the people who created the first major civilization of Mesopotamia and had many inventions.Sumerians built ziggurats to praise their many gods. All of the people in the Sumerian society were patriarchal: led by men. Like Hammurabi who created Hammurabi's code.
What is a pharaoh?
A pharaoh is the supreme ruler of Egypt.
What is a ka?
Egyptians believed the body has a ka, or spiritual body, and that if the physical body is well preserved, the ka will return after death.
What were pyramids used for?
Pyramids such as the Great Pyramid of Giza were used as tombs for the mummified bodies.
What is a papyrus?
Papyrus is paper made from reeds.
What is embalming?
Embalming is an Invented process by Egyptians of preserving a dead body.
Who were the Minoans?
The Minoans were an early greek trading civilization on island of Crete that focused on learning.
Who were the Mycenaeans?
The Mycenaeans were an early greek warrior civilization located at Mycenae who developed a large commercial network.
What did Homer write?
Homer wrote wrote epic poems: long poems that tell the deeds of a great hero and his arete (excellence a hero wins in a struggle).
He wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
What is a polis?
A polis is a Greek city-state, it was the center of Greek life.
What is an acropolis?
An acropolis is the main gathering place located atop a hill.
What is Sparta?
Sparta is a militaristic Greek city-state that focused on the art of war, which boys studied from a young age. It was governed by an oligarchy, or rule by few. It resisted influence from the outside world, even forbidding travel.
What is an oligarchy?
An oligarchy is a type of government in Sparta that meant that it was ruled by few. An assembly of male citizens voted, but could not debate issues.
What did Athens focus on?
Athens focused on learning and democracy.
What is a democracy?
A democracy is a type of government in Athens that meant it was ruled by many. Cleisthenes created the Athenian assembly, where male citizens could pass laws after free and open debate.
Where was the Persian empire?
The Persian empire was in the east of Greece.
Where was the first Persian war?
The first Persian war was at the Battle of Marathon.
What was the second Persian war?
The second Persian war was at Salamis.
What is the Delian League?
The Delian League is a league that Athens forms after the Persian war to avoid future invasions.
What is direct democracy?
Direct democracy is a type of government in which citizens participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings.
What happened during the Peloponnesian war?
During the Peloponnesian war, when Sparta and its supporters felt the Delian League was growing too strong. A series of disputes led to the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War. Athens remained behind its city's walls while Sparta surrounded them. Heavy combat losses and a plague in the city led to Athens' defeat.
What did Greek religion revolve around?
Greek religion revolved around a family of Greek gods and goddesses, with Zeus as the head of the gods.
Who was Socrates?
Socrates was a greek philosopher who encouraged questioning and taught students using his Socratic (question-and-answer) method, he was eventually sentenced to death for corrupting the youth.
What is the Socratic Method?
The Socratic Method is the question-and-answer method.
Who was Plato? What did he write?
Plato was a student of Socrates who wrote The Republic, saying everyone must perform their role in a just society.
Who was Aristotle?
Aristotle was a student of Plato who taught that happiness comes from a virtuous life.
Who was Alexander the Great?
Alexander the Great washailed from Macedonia, a region to the north of Greece.Athens and others fought Macedonian leadership, but were eventually taken over. He was 20 when he became king, and wanted to fulfill his father's dream of invading Persia. He took possession of Persia in 331 BC and pushed the empire toward Pakistan and India. Died at 32 from unknown causes, but left a legacy which created the Hellenistic Era.
What was the Hellenistic Era?
The Hellenistic Era was a time of Greek language and ideas spreading to the non-Greek world.
Who were the Etruscans?
The Etruscans were people from a place in Italy who found the village of Rome and turned it into a city. Romans adopted Etruscan dress & it's army's organization.
What is a Republic?
A Republic is government in which the leader isn't a king and some citizens have the right to vote.
Who were the Patricians?
The Patricians were people that were part of one of the two groups that Rome was divided in that included wealthy landowners, the ruling class.
Who were the Plebeians?
The Plebeians were farmers, craftspeople, and merchants that were part of the other of the two groups (besides Patricians) that Rome was divided in.
What are the Twelve Tables?
The Twelve Tables are Rome's first code of laws the Rome creates due to crime and political inequality.
What happened during the Punic Wars?
During the Punic Wars fought between Rome and Carthage, Romans defeat Carthage and sell its inhabitants into slavery.
What happened when the Republic ended?
When the Republic ended, the Senate, governed by the Roman state, became too heavily influenced by rich Roman families. Farmers lost power and land, so, the Gracchus brothers urged a council of plebeians to pass land-reform bills, but they were killed.
What is a triumvirate?
A triumvirate is a group of three people with equal power.
Who made up the first triumvirate?
The First Triumvirate was made up of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus.
Who was Julius Caesar?
After Crassus' death, Caesar refused to give up or share power with Pompey. He started a civil war and became dictator (absolute ruler) in 45 BC. In 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators.
What is a dictator?
A dictator is an absolute ruler.
What is Pax Romana?
Pax Romana is a period of peace and prosperity that lasted 200 years in Rome.
What three things did Roman architecture perfect?
The three things that Roman architecture perfected were the arch, the vault, and the dome.
Who were the two key Roman writers?
The two key Roman writers were Virgil and Horace.
Who was Jesus?
Jesus was a Jewish prophet who traveled and preached. These teachings are now known as Christianity.
What was the punishment for being a Christian in early Rome?
The punishment for being a Christian in early Rome was death.
Why did Christianity attract roman followers?
Christianity attracted roman followers because it was personal, offered salvation, and gave people a sense of belonging.
Who was Constantine?
Constantine was the first Christian emperor, issued the Edict of Milan, which proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity.
What was the Edict of Milan?
The proclamation of official tolerance of Christianity issued by Constantine.
What caused the economic collapse in the 3rd century for Rome?
The causes of the economic collapse in the 3rd century for Rome were invasions, civil wars, and plague.
How was Rome divided?
Rome was divided into the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. Germanic tribes began to invade, and the Western half falls in 476 AD.
The Eastern half survives for a while under the name of the Byzantine Empire, but 476 marks the "end" of the Roman Empire.
What are the Vedas?
Vedas are the Hinduism's sacred text, developed in India and written in Sanskrit.
What is Sanskrit?
Sanskrit is a new language in which the Vedas were written.
What are Varnas?
Varnas are the divisions of Indian society into social groups.
What are the four Varnas?
The four Varnas are Brahmins (priests and teachers), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaisyas (merchants and farmers), Sundras (peasants and servants).
What is a caste system?
A caste system is a more rigid version of the varnas because it evolved from the Varnas.
What is the Silk Road?
The Silk Road is a route connecting the Roman Empire and China, only carried luxury goods and Romans knew China as Serica, or "Land of Silk."
Name the four dynasties of China.
The four dynasties of China are Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han.
What is aristocracy?
Aristocracy is the upper class whose wealth is based on land and Shang's dynasty's farming society rulled by it.
What is the Mandate of Heaven?
The Mandate of Heaven is the permission from Heaven for Chinese dynasties to rule and keep order in the universe.
What is legalism?
Legalism is the idea that man is naturally evil and requires a stronger ruler.
What is the Dao?
The Dao is the proper "way" in which Chinese dynasties were expected to rule.
What is Filial piety?
Filial piety is the duty of members of the family to prioritize the needs and desiers of the male head of the family.
Buddhism was started in Nepal. Its aim is to end the suffering in the world. They follow the 4 noble truths. It spread through Asia and several branches of Buddhism evolved. The teachings were told orally. For Theravada Buddhism is the Tripitaka (Three baskets).
The dharmachakra (wheel of the law). It signifies the overcoming of obstacles. The 8 spokes represent the 8 fold path. Siddhartha Gautama achieved enlightenment beneath the Bodhi tree. It's in Bodh Gaya, India. The ultimate goal is to reach nirvana. Thervada Buddists believe Monks are most likely to reach nirvana.
Claims more members than any other world religion. Monotheistic, and beliefs in the life and teachings of Jesus. They regard Jesus as their savior. People are saved and receive eternal life. The Bible is the spiritual text for all Christians. It's considered to be inspired by God.
Jesus died for their sins. His death redeemed those who follow his teaching. "Christ the Redeemer" in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bethlehem was the birthplace of Jesus. The church of the nativity is located in the heart of Bethlehem. It houses the spot where Christians believe Jesus was born. Christians celebrate events commemorating the life and death of Jesus.
Oldest of the world's major living religions. No single founder or founding date. It is complex, has numerous sects and different divinities. The Vedas consisted of hymns, prayers, and speculations composed in ancient Sanskrit. The symbol is a sound- the OM. The sound that Hindus chant during prayers, mantras, and rituals. When a person dies, his or her soul is reborn, this is known as reincarnation. Many Hindus bathe in the Ganges to purify their souls and to be released from rebirth. Holi is a significant North Indian Hindu festival. It celebrates the triumph of good over evil. They splash colored powders and water on each other.
They are known as Muslims. They follow one God they call Allah. The spiritual founder is Muhammad. Muslims believe in the 5 pillars of Islam. Two main branches: Sunni and Shia. The Quran. It is written in Arabic and only read in Arabic. There have been translations made. Muslims say a prayer from the Quran 5 times a day. It is symbolized by the crescent moon. It is an important part of Muslim rituals, which are based on the lunar calendar. Makkah is a sacred site. It's where Muhammad began his teachings. One of the 5 pillars of Islam require all able people to make the pilgrimage to the holy city. Their 5 daily prayers in said in Makkah's direction. Ramadan is a month-long commemorating the time during which Muhammad received the Quran from Allah. Muslims fast from dawn until sunset all month long.
Began in China. It is considered a religion but it is actually a philosophy. Based on the teachings of Confucius which focused on social, political, and educational philosophy. Confucius was famous for his sayings and proverbs. His teachings were gathered into a book called the Analects. The symbol is the yin-yang. It symbolized the harmony the philosophy offers. The white is Yin. Bright and playful aspect of life. The black is yang, the dark, mysterious , and serious part of life. The 2 work to balance each other. The temple at Qufu is a group of buildings dedicated to Confucius. One of the largest ancient architectural complexes in China. Every year followers gather to celebrate Confucius's birthday. It does not have a god or clergy, but there are temples dedicated to Confucius. Those who follow his teachings see it as a way of life and a guide to ethical behavior and good government.
Monotheistic (the first one!) Jews have a covenant with God. They believe God will one day send the messiah who will redeem them from exile and bring them a world of peace. Separated into many branches.The Torah is the 5 books of Moses. It tells the story of the origins of the Jews. It also explains Jewish law. The remainder of the Bible contains the writings of prophets, Psalms, and ethical and Historic works. The menorah is used in celebration of Hanukkah. It celebrates the rededication of the Temple of Jerusalem following the Maccabees' victory over the Syrians. The Western wall is what remains of the structure surrounding the Second Jerusalem Temple. Prayers are offered at the wall 3 times a day--morning, afternoon and night. The day-long Yom Kippur service ends with the blowing of the ram's horn. It's the holiest day in the Jewish calendar. During this time Jews do not eat or drink for 25 hours. It comes 10 days after Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish new year.
Sikhism had influences from Islam and Hinduism but is very distinct itself. It emerged in the Punjab, in NW India. Their tradition states that Nānak encountered God directly and was commissioned to become his servant. Their god is formless and without qualities. It forbids discrimination based on class, color, religion, caste, or gender. The Adi Granth was compiled from the mid-1500s through the 1600s. It includes contributions from Sikh gurus and persons claimed as saints by Hindus and Muslims, such as Namdev, Ravidas, and Kabir. Called the khanda, it is composed for 4 traditional Sikh weapons. The khanda or double-edged sword; the cakkar, a disk; and two curved daggars representing temporal and spiritual power. Amritsar is the spiritual capital. The Golden Temple is the most sacred of Sikh shrines. Vaisakhi is a significant Punjabi and Sikh festival. It celebrates the new year and the beginning of harvest season. Celebrations take place along riverbanks with people dancing and wearing brightly colored clothes.
Describe Indigenous Religions.
Africa: A variety of local religions. All are different but recognize the existence of one creator. Religious ceremonies are often celebrated with music and dance. Rituals are very important. Clothing is a ritual.
Masks are a component of ritual and ceremony.
Australia: Aboriginal religion has no deities. Belief that ancestors sprang from the Earth and created all people, plant and animal life. Ancestors contribute to the natural world. Women bless new children with smoke to ensure good health and fortune. Girls will often paint their faces with the symbols of their clan or family group.
Japan: Shinto is the largest indigenous religion. Has no formal doctrine. The gods are known as kami. Ancestors are worshiped. Its 4 million followers often practice Buddhism in addition to Shinto. Priests often live on shrine grounds. Shrines are usually built in places of great beauty to emphasize the relationship between people and nature.
Native Americans: Centers on the spirit world. Rituals vary. Most believe in a Great Spirit who, along with other spirits, influences all aspects of life. The rituals, prayers, and ceremonies often center on good health and good harvest and hunting. Rituals are also used to mark the passage of life. Rituals are passed down from generation to generation. They have traditional dress. Totem poles were popular. Often decorated with mythical beings and family crests.
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