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Pharm 2, Exam 3- Saunders

Terms in this set (79)

1.Take the medication with the first bite of each meal.

Rationale: Acarbose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that delays absorption of dietary carbohydrates by inhibiting the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which breaks down complex carbohydrates. It therefore slows digestion of carbohydrates, which reduces the postprandial rise in blood glucose, and should be taken with the first bite of food with each meal (3 times a day). The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are the only oral antidiabetic agents whose effects do not depend at all on the presence of insulin. All of the other oral agents act, at least in part, by increasing insulin secretion and/or decreasing insulin resistance. Option 2 is incorrect, as there is no contraindication to taking acarbose with a urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infections are an adverse effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, sitagliptin. Option 3 is incorrect, as hypoglycemia is not likely to occur with acarbose alone but may develop when acarbose is combined with insulin or a sulfonylurea. If hypoglycemia develops for a client taking acarbose, simple glucose must be used for treatment. Foods such as fruit juice that contain sucrose, a disaccharide that must be broken down, cannot be used for oral therapy to treat hypoglycemia because the acarbose will impede its hydrolysis and thereby delay absorption. Option 4 is incorrect, as it is metformin, a biguanide medication, that should be held at the time of an iodine contrast dye study and restarted 48 hours after because of the risk of renal injury.