Chapter 3: Consumer Motivation and Personality
Terms in this set (52)
occurs when consumers attribute human traits or characteristics to a brand. It provides an emotional identity for a brand, which produces sentiments and feelings toward the brand among consumers. A form of anthropomorphism, which refers to attributing human characteristics to something that is not human. (EX: Mr. Clean)
is the driving force that impels people to act. It represents the reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way.
circumstances or things that are wanted or required, and they direct the motivational forces. They can be aroused by internal stimuli found in the individual's physiological condition, emotional or cognitive processes, or stimuli in the outside environment. Creative marketing messages arouse needs by stimulating a psychological desire or imbalance in consumers' minds. They may have a positive or negative direction. (shopping for a funeral is something we are not drawn for, but we must do, negative)
the sought-after results of motivated behavior, all human behavior is oriented from this. Interdependent to needs. People are often not as aware of their needs as they are this.
learned from our parents, social environment, and interacting with others. Among many others, they include the needs for self-esteem, prestige, affection, power, learning, and achievement.
outcomes that consumers seek in order to satisfy physiological and psychological needs.
outcomes that consumers seek by using a given product or service. The difference when a consumer states they want a pair of jeans vs when they announce they really want a pair of Calvin Klein jeans (the second one)
usually satisfy more than one need. And, for any given need, there are many different and appropriate goals. The goals that individuals select depend on those individuals' personal experiences and knowledge, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values, and the goal's accessibility in the individuals' physical and social environments.
has to be both socially acceptable and physically accessible. The motivation to select goals can be either positive or negative. We may feel a driving force toward some object or condition or a driving force away from some object or condition. Goals depend upon personal experiences, physical capacity, prevailing cultural norms and values, and accessibility in the physical and social environment.
when seeking for this outcome it is called an approach object. (related to goals)
these outcomes we want to prevent are called avoidance objects.
the feeling that results from failure to achieve a goal.
cognitive and behavioral ways to handle frustration. Used when people cannot cope with frustration. They are often developed to protect one's ego from feelings of failure when goals are not achieved. (Think of when you reacted to a difficult situation)
prepared an extensive list of psychogenic needs in 1938, which represented the first systematic approach to the understanding of non-biological human needs. He believed that needs can be interrelated, can support other needs, and can conflict with other needs. He also believed that environmental circumstances strongly influence how psychogenic needs are displayed in behavior. Organized needs into five groups: ambition, materialistic, power, affection, and information needs.
developed a self-administered personality inventory that became one of the most widely used tools in the study of personality traits.
formulated a theory of human motivation based on the notion that there is a hierarchy of human needs which rank in order of importance from lower-level (biogenic) needs to higher level (psychogenic) needs. (Bottom level) Physiological needs - primary needs which are required to sustain life, are the first and most basic level of human needs. (Above Physiological Needs) Safety and Security Needs - physical safety, order, stability, routine, familiarity, and control over ones life and environment, becomes the driving force behind an individual's behavior. (Above Safety/Security Needs) Social Needs - love, affection, belonging, and acceptance. Makes fourth level of Needs operative. (Above Social Needs) Egoistic Needs - inwardly directed: needs for self-acceptance, self-esteem, success, independence, and personal satisfaction; outwardly directed needs: prestige, reputation, status, and recognition from others. (Above Egoistic Needs, the fifth level) Self-actualization Needs - refers to an individual's desire to fulfill his or her potential, to become everything that he or she is capable of becoming.
an individual's desire to control his or her environment. It include the need to control other persons and various objects. This need appears to be closely related to the ego need, in that many individuals experience increased self-esteem when they exercise power over objects or people.
very similar to Maslow's social need and suggests that behavior is strongly influenced by the desire for friendship, acceptance, and belonging.
often regard personal accomplishment as an end in itself. They are self-confident, enjoy taking calculated risks, actively research their environments, and value feedback, often in the form of monetary rewards.
Self Reported measures of motives
consist of written statements which ask respondents to indicate how relevant each statement is to them.
used when respondents are unwilling or unable to report their motives, this type of research is used to delve into the consumer's unconscious or hidden motivations.
many qualitative methods are termed this because they require respondents to interpret stimuli that do not have clear meanings, based on the assumption that the subjects will "reveal" or "project" their subconscious, hidden motives into (or onto) the ambiguous stimuli.
is also qualitative and seeks to tap into the subconscious by adapting Freud's psychoanalytical techniques. NEEDS HELP US DEFINE PERSONALITY, THIS IS CRITICAL TO POSITIONING PRODUCTS, MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH IS IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY SUBCONSCIOUS NEEDS. Unconscious needs are are at the heart of human motivation and personality, drives are likely to be biological and sexual.
Limitations of Motivation Research
small sample, highly subjective methods, uses methods not specifically designed to study consumer behavior, imputes exotic reasons for fairly mundane behaviors.
the inner psychological characteristics (qualities, attributes, traits, factors, and mannerisms that distinguish one individual from another) that both determine and reflect how we think and act. Researchers agree (1) this reflects individual differences; (2) this is generally consistent and enduring; and (3) although it is enduring. this can sometimes change.
suggests unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation. The Neo theory suggest social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. Trait theory takes a quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits. Human personality consist of three systems, the id, super ego, and the ego. The Id is the "warehouse" of primitive drives, basic physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, and sex. The Superego drives the individual to fulfill their needs in a socially acceptable function. Finally, the Ego is the internal monitor that balances the needs of the id and the superego.
believe social relationships are fundamental to personality (vs Freud's theories, which were based heavily on development). These relationships are formed to reduce feelings of inferiority (Adler) or tension (Sullivan). People can be classified as to how they interact with others - are they compliant (desires attention), aggressive (desires admiration), or detached (desires independence/freedom of obligation) - different personality groups differ in their brand usage (Horney).
personality is not abstract, personality consists of distinct dimensions or traits, personality can be measured, made the area of personality measurement very simple, downside is that there are so many traits and tests to measure them.
1. Functional factors reflect interest in the performance of an innovation. 2. Hedonic factors relate to feeling gratified by using the innovation. 3. Social Factors reflect the desire to be recognized by others because of one's pursuit of innovations.
a trait that exist independent of any product-related context and represents the "very nature" of consumers' innovativeness.
a narrowly defined activity within a specific domain or product category.
actions or responses that indicate early acceptance of change and adoption of innovations (ex: being among the first to purchase new and different products or services).
one's degree of rigidity - the opposite of being open-minded - toward information and opinion contradictory to one's beliefs and views (closed-mindedness). Dogmatic individuals are less likely to be innovators.
describes an individual's inner or other-directedness. Inner-directed consumers rely on their own inner values or standards in evaluating new products and are likely to be consumer innovators. Conversely, other-directed consumers look to others for guidance as to what is appropriate or inappropriate and are unlikely to be consumer innovators.
Need for uniqueness
defined as an individual's pursuit of differentness relative to others that is achieved through the acquisition of consumer goods in order to enhance one's personal and social identity.
Optimum stimulation level (OSL)
the degree to which people like novel, complex, and unusual experiences (high OSL) or prefer a simple, uncluttered, and calm existence (low OSL)
one's need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take risks for the sake of such experiences.
Variety and Novelty seeking
1. Exploratory purchase behavior includes switching brands to experience new, different, and possibly better alternatives. 2. Vicarious explorations consists of gathering information about new and different product alternatives and contemplating buying them. 3. Use innovativeness means using an already adopted product in a new or novel way.
Need for cognition
measures a person's craving for or enjoyment of thinking.
prefer promotional messages containing a lot of written, textual, and verbal information. Visualizers are more receptive to pictorial images, and include 1. Object visualizers, who encode and process images as a single perceptual unit. 2. Spatial visualizers, who process images piece by piece.
gauges the extent to which an individual is preoccupied with purchasing and showing off physical possessions that are mostly nonessential and often conspicuous luxury goods.
is the consumer's willingness to buy or not buy foreign-made products. Cosmopolitanism is the opposite of this, the world is their market
refers to collectors' and hobbyists' tendency to accumulate items that are related to their interest and show them off to friends and others with similar interests. Share these characteristics: 1. A passion for and interest in the category of what they collect. 2. Willingness to invest a lot of effort in adding to their collections. 3. Spending a lot of time and discretionary income searching and buying more items for their collections. 4. Aggressively competing in auctions.
addictive and out-of-control buying that often has damaging consequences for both the compulsive shopper and those around him or her. EX: uncontrollable shopping, gambling, drug addiction, alcoholism, and even eating disorders.
occurs when consumers attribute human traits or characteristics to a brand. Provides an emotional identity for a brand, which produces sentiments and feelings toward the brand among consumers. It has been associated with gender and geography, and consumers have given websites personalities as well.
Components of self-image
actual self-image, ideal self-image, social self-image, ideal social self-image
a way consumers see themselves
how consumers would like to see themselves
how consumers feel others see them
Ideal social self-image
how consumers would like others to see them
Extension of the self
possessions represent this: 1. Actually, by allowing the person to do things that otherwise would be very difficult or impossible to accomplish (problem solving by using a computer). 2. Symbolically, by making the person feel better (being considered the "best dressed" at work) 3. Conferring status or rank, for ex, among collectors of rare works or art because ownership of a particular masterpiece. 4. Feelings of immortality, because of leaving valuable bequests after death.
Two types (1) physical, which is excessive concern with or inflated view of one's physical appearance (2) achievement, which is excessive concern with or inflated view of one's personal achievements. Vain consumers are: lucrative mkt for personal care and beauty products, welcome promotional messages showing that they attract others' attention, and are receptive to promotional messages featuring personal achievement.