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World Geography chapter 3

MCA Mrs. Hampton Honors
STUDY
PLAY
weather
condition of the atmosphere in one place during a short period of time
climate
weather patterns that are typical for an area over a long period of time
revolution
complete trip around the sun
equinox
March 21, the suns rays fall directly on the equator
tropic of cancer
23 1/2 degrees N, northernmost point on the earth to receive direct rays from the sun
solstice
June 21, marks the beginning of summer in the northern hemisphere. Brings the northern hemisphere its longest day of sunlight
tropic of capricorn
December 21, 23 1/2 degrees S. marks the beginning winter. Southernmost point on the earth.
greenhouse effect
the capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat, thereby heating the earth
greenhouse effect
without this, the earth would be too cold for most living things
global warming
gradual warming of the earth and its atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and by an increase in the greenhouse effect
low latitudes
between 30 degrees S and 30 degrees N. receives direct rays from the sun. Hot
high latitudes
between 60 degrees N to 90 degrees N and 60 degrees S and 90 degrees S. Only gets indirect sunlight. Cold
Arctic Circle
latitude 66 1/2 degrees N. Experiences continuous daylight or sunlight
antarctic circle
latitude 66 1/2 degrees S. experiences continuous daylight or twilight
midlatitudes
have temperate climates
elevation
height above the level of the sea
Quito, Ecuador
Very cold. on the Andes Mountains and directly on the equator
prevailing winds
global winds blow in fairly constant pattern
coriolis effect
causes prevailing winds to blow diagonally rather than along strict North-South or East-West directions
dolodrums
when global winds are directed North and South, leaving a narrow, generally windless band
currents
cold and warm streams of water
ocean currents
moving streams of water created by winds blowing across the ocean
El Niño
name given to the short term periodic change in the location of warm and cold water masses in the Pacific Ocean
windward
The side of a mountain that faces the oncoming wind
leeward
the side of the mountain that is sheltered fron the wind. it is the drier side of the mountain.
rain shadow
dry area found on the leeward side of a mountain range
natural vegetation
the plant life that grows in an area where the natural environment is unchanged by human activity
oasis
an area of lush vegetation
coniferous
vegetation that has cones and needle-shaped leaves, including evergreens, keep their foliage throughout the winter
deciduous
falling off or shed seasonally or periodically, Trees such as oak and maple, which lose their leaves in autumn
mixed forest
forest with both coniferous and deciduous trees
prairie
an inland grassland area
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
hypothesis
a scientific explanation for an event
smog
haze caused by the interaction of ultraviolet solar radiation with chemical fumes from automobile exhausts and other pollution sources