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Biology Exam #1
Terms in this set (57)
A localized group of organisms that belong to the same species is called?
The main source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is...
Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the two domains?
Bacteria and Archaea
Which of these provides evidence of the common ancestry of all like?
Near universality of the genetic code
What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi?
Absorbing dissolved nutrients
Why is the theme of evolution considered to be the core theme of biology by biologists?
It provides a framework within which all biological investigation makes sense.
Which of the following is the best description of a control for an experiment?
The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable
All organisms on your campus make up a?
Why is each element unique and different from other elements in chemical properties?
Each element has a unique number of protons in its nucleus
Which of the following molecules contains the most polar covalent bond?
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
A polar covalent bond
Which of the following explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one another?
How many bonds can carbon accept?
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
Polar covalent bonds
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
a hydrogen bond
Water molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with
compounds that have polar covalent bonds
A dietary calorie equals 1 kilocalorie. What correctly defines 1 kilocalorie?
1,000 calories, or the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
You have a freshly prepared 0.1 M solution of glucose in water. Each liter of this solution contains how many glucose molecules?
6.02 x 10^22
A strong acid like HCl
ionizes completely in an aqueous solution
What ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong base (alkali)?
A 0.01 M solution of a substance has a pH of 2. What can you conclude about this substance?
It is a strong acid that ionizes completely in water
What is the hydrogen ion [H+] concentration of a solution of pH 8?
If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the
concentration of H+ has increased tenfold (10X) and the concentration of OH- has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what they were at pH 9
What is true about buffer solutions?
They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them
Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
both donating H+ to a solution when bases are added, and accepting H+ when acids are added
Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
washing away certain mineral ions that help buffer soil solution and are essential nutrients for plant growth
If a solution has a pH of 7, this means that
the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water
How would acidification of seawater affect marine organisms?
Acidification would decrease dissolved carbonate concentrations and hinder growth of corals and shell-building animals
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
number of molecules
The element present in all organic molecules is
The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to
the chemical versatility of carbon atoms
Stanley Miller's 1953 experiments proved that
organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early Earth
How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond with other atoms?
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
the majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages
Research indicates that ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantiomers; that is, molecules that
are mirror images of one another
A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominate functional group. What is true concerning this compound?
It should dissolve in water
Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
carboxyl and amino
What does a structural isomer look like?
Which functional group is a characteristic of alcohols?
What functional groups are present in all amino acids?
---C---O---H and ---NH2
Humans and mice differ because
their cells have some differences in the sequence of nucleotides in their nucleic acids
Molecules with which functional groups may form polymers via dehydration reactions?
either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups
Which of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers?
What is not a polymer?
What is the chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?
What polymer contains nitrogen?
What IS NOT a polysaccharide?
What is true of both starch and cellulose?
They are both polymers of glucose
Which of the following is true of cellulose?
It is a major structural component of plant cell walls
Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because...
Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the Beta glycosidic linkages of cellulose
What is not true concerning saturated fats?
They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
What is the result of adding hydrogens to vegetable oil?
The hydrogenated vegetable oil stays solid at room temperature
Large organic molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of simple subunits. What is an exception to this statement?
What does not contain amino acids?
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