Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

valid form: disjunctive syllogism

p∨q / ~p // q

valid form: pure hypothetical syllogism

p⊃q / q⊃r // p⊃r

valid form: modus ponens

p⊃q / p // q

valid form: modus tollens

p⊃ q / ~q // ~p

valid form: constructive dilemma

(p⊃q) · (r⊃s) / p∨r // q∨s

valid form: destructive dilemma

(p⊃q) · (r ⊃s) / ~q∨~s // ~p∨~r

invalid form/fallacy: affirming the consequent

p⊃q / q // p

invalid form/fallacy: denying the antecedent

p⊃q / ~p // ~q

logical equivalency 1: double negative

p = ~~p

logical equivalency 2: wedge flipping

p∨q = q∨p

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording