Rubenstein Chapter 11 Vocabulary, Part Two
Terms in this set (38)
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
Manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product.
Industry producing goods or services for sale to other regions.
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another; location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, cargoes of ships are unloaded and put on trains and trucks for inland distribution.
Abandoned industrial sites; real property of which the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
An economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure. One place must have a supply in which there is an effective demand in another place. Both places must have the money to purchase the product, and the means to transport it.
An industry in which the production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories; a small business in which the workers manufacture items in their homes.
Process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment.
export processing zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract foreign export-oriented industries.
Industry that locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in its cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital; a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport.
The reluctance to relocate due to the inconvenience of moving; managers who hold this perception believe that the potential incoveniences and costs of relocation cancel out any of the benefits.
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods; a period during the late eighteenth century when machine power was substituted for human power, making it more economical to manufacture goods in factories than at home.
Fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
economies of scale
Factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises; corporations make goods more cheaply because they produce so much so quickly using large manufacturing facilities.
An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration; states that optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization.
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated; communities and regions where more firms locate will have higher job growth.
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. the major US industrial region has historically been in the Great Lakes, which includes the states of Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania. Industrial regions also exist in southeastern Brazil, central England, around Tokyo, Japan, and elsewhere.
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright.
Industry producing goods or services for sale within the local region; customers live in same community as the industry.
Contracting with another company, usually abroad, to have it perform an activity the organization previously performed itself; contracting with another organization to perform a broad set of services.
The part of the economy that produces raw materials; examples include agriculture, fishing, mining, lumber, and forestry.
Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state; products of the fishing, lumber, agricultural, and mining industries that organizational customers purchase to use in their finished products.
Characteristics that result from the unique characteristics of a location, such as land, labor, and capital; climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, elevation.
Characteristics that involve transporting materials to and from a factory; temperature, noise, work hours, breaks, supervisors, and co-workers.
Manufacturing businesses that take materials from primary industries and other secondary industries and make them into goods; industries that deal with making products that are likely to be directly consumed by individuals.
A Varignon frame is a system of weights and pulleys used by geographers to help determine optimum location of a production facility. For example, the weights might represent the relative cost of transporting particular goods to or from particular locations, to help a firm decide the most cost effective site to locate a prospective production facility.
Creator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization; he devised the least-cost location theory.
Explain the Industrial Revolution by:
~Describing its origin
~Describing its diffusion and current pattern of industrial regions.
it introduced power-driven machinery, enabling factories to produce great quantities of goods. attracted by jobs, workers migrated to the growing cities. Railroads and steamships eased the movement of people and products. With new agricultural machinery, farmers cultivated more land and harvested more crops. CHECK NOTES!!!!!
Mapping regional manufacturing zones in different regions of with different specific strengths.
Compare and contrast pre-industrial, industrial, and post-industrial life and landscape and give examples of each.
The first two stages involve the development of social language (BICS).
Describing how site and situation factors influence the location of manufacturing and give examples.
Explain the location of industry by
~Contrasting raw material-oriented with market-oriented industries
~Explaining Weber's "least-cost" theory
~Defining "footloose" industries
Discuss the problems created by industrialization in:
The problems the Industrial Revolution placed on cities stemmed from overcrowded places. With all the new jobs the Industrial Revolution created, hordes of people rushed to the cities to make money. However, the cities were ill equipped to handle so many people. Disease, unemployment, and poverty were just some of the major problems that came to the cities.