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A water jet is directed upward from a well-designed nozzle of area ; the exit jet speed is . The flow is steady and the liquid stream does not break up. Point (2) is located above the nozzle exit plane. Determine the velocity in the undisturbed jet at point (2). Calculate the pressure that would be sensed by a stagnation tube located there. Evaluate the force that would be exerted on a flat plate placed normal to the stream at point (2). Sketch the pressure distribution on the plate.
Imagine a gas in an insulated cylinder with a movable piston. The piston has been pushed inward, compressing the gas, and is now released. As the molecules of the gas strike the piston, they move it outward. From the point of view of energy principles, explain holw this expansion causes the temperature of the gas to drop.