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Terms in this set (60)
Ethnographic research is
a descriptive, qualitative technique used to understand a social group through participant observation.
When newborn Leah's mother brushes her finger across Leah's cheek, Leah turns her head toward her mother and is ready to suck. Leah is demonstrating the ______ reflex.
All of the following are common characteristics of a person with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum except:
larger than normal head growth
When a pregnant woman is under extreme emotional stress,
the baby will tend to show either abnormally high or abnormally low levels of cortisol, both of which signal reduced capacity to handle stress.
The Apgar score would reflect all of following components of physical functioning except
In a research study to examine what happens to intelligence levels across the lifespan, subjects were divided into three cohort groups - age 20, age 40, and age 60. A brief intelligence test was given to each group. Ten years later, the cohorts were each tested again (at ages 30, 50, and 70). One final testing was completed 10 years after that (at ages 40, 60, and 80). Which type of design was implemented in this study?
The study of the contributions of nature vs. nurture to development has evolved into the study of development as the result of ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and the environment. This area of study is known as
What is measured by the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale?
Newborns' reflexes, muscle tone, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli
Sickle-cell anemia is an example of a pattern of inheritance in which a dominant-recessive pattern does not completely hold, but both alleles are expressed in the phenotype. This pattern is known as
Which of the following is true concerning the sensory capabilities of a newborn?
Newborns tend to be more attentive to speech when its pattern is slow, high-pitched, and expressive.
Which of the following is not one of the three related variables used to determine socioeconomic status (SES)?
Geographic location of home
Julia is an excellent pianist. She has always loved music and could play by ear since she was young. When she got old enough, she asked for piano lessons then joined the choir as an accompanist her senior year. Julia's development of her musical skills would fit most closely with which type of gene-environment correlation?
Research on children who come from affluent homes shows that
their parents were nearly as physically and emotionally unavailable to them as parents experiencing extreme financial strain
Benny has been diagnosed with cerebral palsy, a condition that was caused by anoxia which is
inadequate oxygen supply
During which stage of prenatal development do the following developments take place: eyes and ears form, buds of arms and legs form, heart beats and develops separate chambers, liver and spleen take over production of blood cells?
Beth was called into the office by her boss and was given a reprimand for being late to work twice that week. She was upset about it all day, and when she got home, she was grouchy and short-tempered with her daughter Lilly. When her mother would not let her have dessert, Lilly had an extended temper tantrum, adding to her mother's stress level which impacted her at work the next day. Although Lilly and her mother's boss have never met each other, they impact each other's lives. This explanation of influence would be most consistent with which theoretical approach?
Ecological Systems Theory
Karson was born at 39 weeks gestation and weighed 5.5 pounds at birth. He would be considered
small for date
Anna is babysitting for the first time, and she learned how to care for the baby by watching her mother take care of her baby sisters. This explanation of how Anna acquired her babysitting skills would be most consistent with which theoretical approach?
Social Learning Theory
Research on children who are adopted shows which of the following to be true?
Children adopted later in life are more likely than their age mates to show persistent cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties.
Which of the following is not one of the assumptions of the lifespan perspective?
development is unpredictable
Which of the following would not be considered typical development for a 2-year old child?
Consistently knowing the size and capabilities of her own body (e.g., not trying to put on her doll's clothes or sit in her tiny doll's chair)
The key factor in determining whether or not sensitive caregiving in infancy (that leads to secure attachment) is linked to positive development later in life is
continuity of caregiving over time
The primary reason for the large increase in brain size in the first two years of life is
rapid multiplication of glial cells needed for myelination of the neural fibers.
Malati is 2 years old and lives in extreme poverty. His mother feeds him rice every day but does not have access to fruits, vegetables, or sources of protein. He is thin, and though he looks like he has a large abdomen, it is only because it is extremely swollen. Malati's condition is consistent with having
According to the dynamic systems theory of motor development, motor skill development occurs as result of
blended skills developed from a combination of things like nervous system development, physical movement capabilities, and the goals the child has in mind.
Toddlers are expected to speak using what is called telegraphic speech. Which of the following would be an example of that kind of speech?
Beth is feeding her daughter Bella lunch at a friend's house. She seems to know when to give the next bite or when Bella wants a drink. When Bella gets excited about the macaroni and cheese, Beth shows excitement too. When Bella cries because she drops her cup, Beth shows concern and picks it up for her. Beth and Bella are demonstrated a kind of communication known as
Raya is 10 months old and is shopping with her mother. An older woman who she does not know begins to talk to her and try to make her smile. Not understanding the situation, Raya looks to her mother's response to try to figure it out. Ray is engaging in
In violation-of-expectation studies such as the one testing if infants will track where a ball should reappear based on physical reality after it disappears behind a screen, research has shown that babies
spend more time looking at an unexpected event, showing that they are "surprised" by the deviation from physical reality they have come to expect.
Michael is 20 months old and is left in the church nursery during the Sunday morning worship service. He cried when he was dropped off, but he settled down after a few minutes and played with the toys. When his parents came to pick him up, he immediately ran to the door wanting to be picked up. Which type of attachment most closely matches Michael's behavior in this situation?
Mary, 16 months, has developed a scheme for the action pattern of running. She loves to run through her house and use her new motor skills. However, when she goes to her grandma's house and begins to run on the hardwood floor, she slips and falls multiple times. She has to change her understanding of what is involved in running successfully on hardwood vs. carpet. Mary is demonstrating
Which of the following is an example of stimulation leading to experience-dependent brain growth?
Teaching basic sign language to a child.
The model of explaining temperament/environment interactions that stresses recognizing each child's unique temperament and how it works with the parenting style of the parents is the
goodness-of-fit model of Thomas & Chess
Which of the following shows the correct developmental sequence for fine motor skills in infancy?
Ulnar grasp (3-4 months), hand to hand transfer (4-5 months), pincer grasp (9 months)
If you are presenting an infant with visual stimulation, he would be most likely to show a preference for looking at
human faces and high degrees of contrast
The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) has three main subtests that address which areas of development?
Cognition, language skills, and motor skills
When the impact of early environmental deprivation for at-risk children is studied, which of the following is true?
Studies on the effectiveness of Early Head Start programs has shown immediate gains but declining benefits seen by age 5 and no persisting gains measured by 5th grade
Breast-feeding is associated which of the following outcomes?
Lower risk of rapid weight gain and later obesity in children who were breast-fed exclusively for the first 6 months
Which of the following is an example of the cephalocaudal trend in development?
Growth of the head before growth of the lower part of the body.
The first stage of development in Erikson's theory in which infants ideally learn to expect the world to be a good place based on the kind and compassionate care they have received is the ________ stage.
trust vs. mistrust
At what age does the first representational drawing begin?
3-4 years old
Archie is 4 years old. Based on Piaget's Theory, he is in the preoperational stage. How would you be able to identify egocentrism in his behavior?
Archie is looking at the front of a statue. His sister is looking at the back of the statue. Archie believes his sister sees the same thing as him.
Bill is 4 and was counting gummy bears. He understands that the last number in the sequence indicates the quantity of gummy bears he has. This is an example of what?
At what age would Susanne know to adjust the way she speaks to her baby sister, friend and dad?
4 years old
Astrid struggles with anxiety, low self-esteem and anger. Her parents made decisions for her, were cold and degrading, and often used coercive behavior to control her. Which child rearing style do you think they used?
Liza got in an argument with her friend Abby about who could play with her American Girl Doll. Liza's teacher made her share even though Liza didn't want to. So Liza told all her classmates that Abby had pooped her pants and couldn't be their friend anymore. This is an example of:
Jill is in preschool and loves to "read" memorized versions of stories to her friends. This is at type of what?
About how many words should a typical 6-year-old know?
Robert's dad asked Robert to tell him what happens when you go to a restaurant. He replied "You go in, get food, eat, pay and go home". This is an example of:
Which brain structure controls communications between the hemispheres, enabling more complex, coordinated movements and thinking?
Peer acceptance is based on likeability. Amelia is "average", but her friend Lelo is disliked. Which category of peer acceptance would Lelo belong to?
What are the major changes in gross motor development in middle childhood?
flexibility, balance, agility, force
What is the drawback of maternal employment and/or dual earner families when it comes to child rearing?
Jai is 8 years old and is in Piaget's concrete operational state. Jai recently drew a map of the neighborhood with landmarks. Which area of operational thought would that fall under?
When Bobby failed his math test, he said "I'm terrible at math." But when he did well on his spelling test, he said it was because of "good luck". This is an example of:
What's the best way to foster resilience in middle childhood?
Good community resources and warm parental relationship
James was tired of public school so his parents sought out a school with a different educational philosophy. His new school had a classroom with teacher-child and child-child collaboration on learning. They participated in a wide range of activities becoming competent, contributing members of their classroom community. His new school encouraged him to challenge himself. This type of classroom is:
Caroline studies every afternoon using a memory strategy of connecting relationships between information she knows and is trying to learn. What time of memory strategy is this?
Middle childhood bring new fears. Which of the following is not a new typical fear of middle childhood?
Thunder and Lightening
Grey is skilled at classifying animals, minerals and plants. Which of Gardner's multiple intelligences would this fall under?
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