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17 terms

Learning

Chapter 5
STUDY
PLAY
Learning
Process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
Conditioning
Fairly specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli
Classical Conditioning
Selective behaviors come to be emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to gain reward or to avoid a punishment
Unconditioned Stimulus
Invariably prompts a certain reaction. EX: Food prompts salvation
Unconditioned Response
Results from unconditioned stimulus. EX: Whenever a dog is given food, its mouth waters
Conditional Stimulus
a stimulus that yields a response only after learning has occurred
Conditional Response
Behavior that an animal has learned in response to the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus
Desensitization Therapy
Being able to overcome fears by learning to remain calm
Operant Behavior
Learned behaviors that are designed to operate on the environment on a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
Reinforcers
Consequences that that increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Punisher
Consequences that decrease the chances that a behavior will be repeated
Law of Effect
The theory of "reinforcers" and "punishers"
Positive Reinforcers
Adding something rewarding to the environment such as food or pleasant music
Negative Reinforcers
Subtracting something unpleasant from a environment
Punishment
To get punished for doing something such as receiving a speeding ticket
Avoidance Training
Having people avoid doing things by threatening a punishment; therefor, not actually punishing
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events