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Process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
Fairly specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli
Selective behaviors come to be emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to gain reward or to avoid a punishment
Invariably prompts a certain reaction. EX: Food prompts salvation
Results from unconditioned stimulus. EX: Whenever a dog is given food, its mouth waters
a stimulus that yields a response only after learning has occurred
Behavior that an animal has learned in response to the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus
Being able to overcome fears by learning to remain calm
Learned behaviors that are designed to operate on the environment on a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
Consequences that that increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Consequences that decrease the chances that a behavior will be repeated
Law of Effect
The theory of "reinforcers" and "punishers"
Adding something rewarding to the environment such as food or pleasant music
Subtracting something unpleasant from a environment
To get punished for doing something such as receiving a speeding ticket
Having people avoid doing things by threatening a punishment; therefor, not actually punishing
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events