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105 terms

rachel_jordan history ch.15-16

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Empires united by outside conquerors
Gunpowder empires
Ottoman religious, legal, and educational advisers
The Ulema
Chief minister of the sultan
Grand Vizier
Elite guard of the Ottoman Turks
Janissaries
Residence of a sultan and his wives
Harem
Ottoman art included __________
distinctive woven rugs
Ottoman Turk mosques were designed with __________
domes and minarets
The Ottoman Empire after the death of Suleyman was hurt by ___________
the cost of constant wars, rise of a privileged group, and lack of training for officials
The Ottoman Empire preferred to _____________
force all conquered peoples to follow Islam
Ottoman Turks conquered ___________
North Africa, Constantinople, the Balkans
True/False Even late in the empire, Ottoman merchants and officials avoided European styles and customs.
False
True/False Officials appointed by the central government were called pashas.
True
True/False The Ottoman Turks modeled their mosques on the floor plan of the Hagia Sophia.
True
True/False The Ottomans had their own silk industry.
True
True/False The queen mother of a sultan often had considerable power and influence.
True
Conformity to traditional religious beliefs
Religious Orthodoxy
Islamic group to which the Safavids belonged
Shia
Political disorder
Anarchy
Safavid king
Shah
Type of carpets highly prized in the West
Persian
Paintings by Riza-i-Abbasi characteristically had ____________
Soft colors and flowing movements
_____________ Appointed officials based on merit, control the power of the aristocracy, be more available to their subjects
Safavid shahs
_____________ Strengthened the army with the latest weapons, returned Azerbaijan to the dynasty, heightened intellectual freedom
Shah Abbas
The shah himself claimed to be the _____________
Spiritual leader of all Islam
Trade goods in the Safavid empire were carried on ____________
a road system that was fairly safe
True/False Most trade goods in the Safavid Empire traveled by horse or camel caravan.
True
True/False The founder of the Safavid dynasty was Shah Abbas.
False
True/False The Ottoman sultan claimed to be the spiritual leader of Islam.
True
True/False The Safavids had less knowledge of science, medicine, and mathematics than other society in the region did.
False
True/False The sea power of the Europeans limited the spread of the Safavid Empire.
True
Founder of the Mogul dynasty in India
Babur
Painting style that combined Persian-Indian motifs
"Akbar" style
Private company representing the British Crown
The East India Company
Considered the most beautiful building in India
Taj Mahal
Underground prison used in 1756
Black Hole of Calcutta
Babur's forces entered India through __________
the Khyber Pass
By the Late eighteenth century, Mogul prosperity was shaken by __________
the coming of the British
____________ kept part of the taxes they collected, exercised considerable power, and received farm plots
Local, lower-ranking officials called zamindars
The British successes in India were achieved through the military genius of ___________
Sir Robert Clive
The Moguls in India were ____________
foreigners who were also Muslims
True/False Suttee is the Hindu practice of levying illegal taxes.
False
True/False Akbar filled upper-rank government positions with Hindus.
False
True/False Aurangzeb was tolerant of Hindu practices.
False
True/False Shah Jahan led successful military campaigns in the Deccan Plateau.
True
True/False The Mogul empire was the greatest Indian dynasty since the Mauryan dynasty.
True
Ruling dynasty from 1644 until 1911
Qing
Leader of exploration and trading voyages
Zheng He
Active Christian missionaries in China
Jesuits
Manchu fighting units
Banners
Dynasty founded by Ming Hong Wu
Ming
Accomplishments of the Ming emperors included __________
renovating the grand Canal
____________ contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty
Peasant unrest, weak rulers, poor crop yields
Reports from early Christian missionaries made ____________
Europeans more curious about China
The emperor Kangxi was generally tolerant of ___________
Christian missionaries
The first Europeans to make contact with the Ming dynasty were the ____________
Portuguese
True/False European trade was confined to Beijing by the Qing dynasty.
False
True/False Jesuits, a Catholic order, were among the most active missionaries in China.
True
True/False Manchu dress customs included the braiding of hair into a queue.
True
True/False The majority of Chinese during the Qing dynasty were Manchus.
False
True/False The Manchus were a farming and hunting people from the area known today as Manchuria.
True
Walled compound inside Beijing
Imperial City
Painful practice for Chinese women
Footbinding
Group of many related families
Clan
Private business based on profit
Commercial Capitalism
Most famous of Ming Era arts
Blue-and-white porcelain
____________ these were changes that occurred in China between 1500 and 1800.
Improvements in the food supply, an increase in population, and growth in manufacturing and trade
Between 1500 and 1800, ____________
85% percent of Chinese people were farmers
In Qing China, only ________ could have a formal education and pursue a career in government or scholarship.
males
The Forbidden City was ______________
closed to commoners
The ideal family unit in Qing China consisted of ____________
the extended family
The Golden Lotus is considered by many to be the first _____________
realistic social novel
Beyond the extended family as a social unit was the ___________, which consisted of dozens, or even hundreds, of related families
clan
Blue-and-white porcelain became one of the most famous of all the arts of the ___________
Ming Era
Initially, __________ was performed as a status symbol among the wealthiest women.
footbinding
Many Chinese looked down on trade and manufacturing as inferior to ___________
farming
Shogunates' method of control
Hostage System
Crops grown for sale
Cash Crops
Territories or domains
Hans
Heads of noble families
Daimyo
Japanese social outcasts
Eta
________ earned the name "the Hermit Kingdom" because of its isolationist practices.
Korea
Much of the prose literature of the Tokugawa Era was _____________
lighthearted and entertaining
The first Jesuit missionary, who came to Japan in 1549, was ______________
Francis Xavier
The Japanese warrior class consisted of _____________
daimyo, shogun, and ronin
What was the order of the four main classes during the Tokugawa Era?
Warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants.
____________ rulers completed the restoration of central authority, which was begun by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi.
Tokugawa
By the end of the sixteenth century, thousands of Japanese had become ___________
Christians
The first European traders to arrive in Japan were from __________
Portugal
The long period Tokugawa rule was known as the ____________
"Great Peace"
The powerful daimyo of Edo took control of Japan and assumed the title of __________ in 1603.
shogun
nonelected government officials
Bureaucracy
fabled gateway to Spice Islands
Melaka
Europeans' name for Spice Islands
Moluccas
part of the continent
Mainland States
Dutch homeland
Netherlands
The Islamic trade network developed in the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago because ___________
Muslim merchants wanted to trade spices
The Southeast Asian states evolved into four styles of monarchy including _____________
Islamic sultans, Vietnamese emperors, and Buddhist kings
What group of explorers first found the gateway to the Spice Islands?
Portuguese
Which Southeast Asian state had a monarchy that followed the Chinese model?
Vietnam
Why were spices highly valued and sought out so eagerly?
They had medicinal uses and preserved meat for winter.
English influence in Southeast Asia was reduced to ____________
a single port on the coast of Sumatra
In non-mainland states, Islam and Christianity began to attract converts, but ___________ advanced on the mainland.
Buddhism
In the ____________ style of monarchy, the king ruled according to the teachings of Confucius.
Vietnamese
Islamic sultans staffed their bureaucracies mainly with ____________
aristocrats
The Portuguese were driven out of the spice trade by the ___________
Dutch