Terms in this set (59)
The electronic instructions that govern a computer's actions in order to provide a computing service.
Today, software goes by many names, including applications, apps, and programs.
Two Types of Software
Systems Software (OS and antivirus)
Application Software (Spreadsheet and social media)
Executable Program File
The file that contains the processing instructions for the processor to execute.
The systematic process of transforming a software idea into functional software.
Software Development Life Cycle
Requirements > Design > Implementation > Verification (testing) > Maintenance
Or coding, is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming languages.
Set of statements that instruct the CPU to perform circuit-switching operations.
All software, including system software and application software, is written using coding schemes called _____
integrated development environment (IDE)
A code editor often features automatic command completion, the ability to suggest useful commands, and color-coding that illustrates the relationship between commands. Debugging software is able to evaluate programming code to determine if and where errors, or bugs, occur
A set of symbols, commands, and rules (syntax) used to write program code.
English-like statements and high-level logic that are then translated into the low-level machine instructions that run in the CPU
Talented programmers are masters of problem solving with logic.
the rules that guide how programming statements are constructed
Object-oriented programming (OOP)
the dominant programming paradigm. In object-oriented programming, data, instructions, and other programming procedures are grouped together, or encapsulated, in reusable objects. Objects are linked in a manner that creates a useful program: one object's output serves as another object's input.
takes source code—a program written in a programming language—and produces object code, which contains an executable file and supportive files, as output
application programming interface (API)
a set of programming tools specifically designed for developing apps for a particular platform
An API might be restricted to one particular programming language, or it could support many languages
Some APIs are combined with an
A software development kit, or SDK, is a programming environment designed to write software for a particular computing platform.
5-2 System software
any software that coordinates the activities of the hardware and assists the computer in functioning safely, effectively, and efficiently
System software includes operating systems that interact with the computer hardware and application software
The hardware configuration of the computer system combined with the particular operating system in use is known as the _______
also known as booting, booting up, or bootstrapping, is the sequence of instructions in the BIOS that is executed when a computer is powered on to check the system and load the operating system into memory.
The boot process requires permanent storage since it is seldom changed and needs to remain fixed while the power is off. For this reason, it is typically stored in some form of ROM or solid-state storage
In sleep mode, the _____ remains in memory so that the device quickly turns on when the power button is pressed.
operating system (OS)
is a set of computer programs that runs or controls the computer hardware, and acts as a user interface
The OS retrieves instructions from the running software, decodes it, and sends it to the CPU for execution, storing any resulting data
________ is written to operate on a particular type of operating system, not on a particular type of computer
_______ are designed to work with specific types of computers and processors
software that is installed for each device connected to a PC, which allows the OS to communicate with that device.
allows one or more people to have access to and command of a computer system or computer software
command-based user interface
requires that commands be typed at a prompt in order to perform basic tasks.
graphical user interface
uses a keyboard and mouse, touch screen, joystick, or other pointing device to manipulate graphics images on the display to issue commands to the computer system
A multitasking GUI allows you to view several applications at once and copy data between applications
the physical and logical storage system and practices provided for managing data on a computer.
The storage-management portion of an OS converts a logical request for data into the physical location where the data is stored via file system
Operating systems allow files to be copied from hard disks to portable media such as USB drives and CDs and DVDs
hard disk, track 1, sector 3.
the most popular operating system for personal computers.
The most recent version is Windows 8
Windows File Explorer is redesigned for improved convenience, and computer settings can be easily accessed without having to sort through the Control Panel.
OS X Mountain Lion
Easy-to-use graphical user interfaces have always been a hallmark of Apple systems.
UNIX operating system
Many Mac users also use Microsoft Office for Mac for their productivity software.
a free, open-source operating system for PCs, servers, and other types of computers.
UNIX-like operating system that would run on desktop PCs
Many versions, called distributions or distros, of Linux have been designed by the user community
Ubuntu for phones and tablets has received notoriety recently for providing a free alternative to the big three smart phone platforms: iPhone, Android, and Windows Phone.
The downside of using Linux is that it does not support many of today's popular software titles.
Virtual machine software
referred to as virtualization software, allows one operating system to run on top of another by creating a virtual machine on which the guest operating system can run.
This includes programmers who need to develop software for multiple platforms.
VirtualBox software from Oracle
Parallels Desktop VM and VMware
Mobile operating systems
Google released Android, the first open-source smart phone OS to gain massive public support and dig deeply into the iPhone's market share
Industrial operating systems
control large networked systems and servers.
IBM and Oracle, typically design and provide the operating system with the hardware.
Network management functions are an important element, as is the ability to manage multiple processors, complex storage architectures, massive amounts of RAM, and many users
Embedded operating systems
just embedded systems, are hardwired into a computer component, such as ROM or flash memory, to control a special-purpose computer.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that has time constraints placed on its functionality:
While general-purpose computers use operating systems stored on ___ , the many special-purpose computers typically employ an _____
embedded operating system
any system software besides the OS that assists in maintaining, managing, and protecting computer system resources.
Maintain files on disk and arrange them in a manner that allows for fast access
•Defragmentation and disk utilities
Safeguard files by creating backup copies
Search for and remove malware such as viruses and spyware from computers, and guard against attacks
Identify and remove unwanted junk mail and ads
•Spam and pop-up blockers:
Remove unwanted programs and leftover traces of programs from the system, and maintain the Windows Registry for smoother OS operation (see video)
Provide a view of system resources in a graphical format to see how the CPU, RAM, and other resources are performing
5-3 Application Software
consists of programs written to perform tasks or solve problems for people, groups, and organizations.
The most popular type of application software is productivity software.
Information management has become a key use of application software
Many types of application software are provided through a web interface
s any software that facilitates group collaboration within the software.
Mobile games, sometimes called____, are very popular with mobile users as are PIM apps, social apps, GPS apps, and others.
a small application that is conveniently accessible from the computer or mobile desktop
gadget or widget
any software designed to assist individuals and groups to be more productive at work and is often used in reference to software suites that include word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation software.
mass-produced software AND custom developed software
The primary task of many business applications is to manage information and uncover valuable insight from data collected.
Computer aided drawing (CAD) software is essential to many engineers and product designers
typically include word processors, spreadsheets, and presentation software, and they sometimes include database-management systems, personal information managers, and other applications
any software designed for personal benefit, including home management, entertainment, and education.
software that is designed for smart phones and tablets
perhaps the most useful software found on mobile devices is personal information management (PIM) software.
5-4 Managing software
refers to activities required to acquire, install, maintain, and remove software from a computer system.
the several methods by which software can be purchased or accessed, including packaged software, downloaded software, cloud apps, and custom designed software.
Apps accessed on the web are called cloud apps because they run on web servers that exist on the Internet or in the cloud.
no installation or maintenance, they are accessible from any Internet-connected device, and data is easily shared among users.
Installing software on computers allows the software to take advantage of specific hardware features.
defines the permissions, rights, and restrictions assigned to the person who purchases a copy of software.
A license is the primary tool used to protect intellectual property.
A software license typically addresses questions such as how many users can access the software, and how many computers the software can be installed on
Freeware is software that is made available to the public for free. Freeware may use a software license to impose some restrictions on the use of the software.
The term free software was coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation, and implies that the software is not only freeware, but it is also open-source.
look in book
involves applying software updates to correct software bugs, improve the software, or add new features.
it is wise to update both system software and application software as soon as updates are made available
one or more defects that prevent the software from working as intended or working at all. Software bugs are classified as "critical" when they allow hackers to take control of a system.
to the process of completely removing software from a computer.
Operating systems provide a method for safely and completely removing software from the system.