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What is 1 + 3?
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
What are the major structures of the urinary system?
Regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, blood sugar, excretion of wastes, production of hormones
What are the functions of the kidneys?
The functional unit of the kidney is the _______
substances (water and solutes) move out of the blood and into the renal tubule
substances move back into the blood from the renal tubule
substances are released into the renal tubule to be excreted
Renal autoregulation, neural regulation, hormonal regulation
What are the three ways the glomerular filtration rate is regulated?
afferent arterioles constrict when blood pressure rises, decreasing GFR
sympathetic innervation of the afferent and efferent arterioles causes constriction, decreasing GFR
PCT, late DCT, and collecting duct
Where does tubular secretion occur?
Urine can be made more concentrated by the presence of __________
more dilute because the collecting duct and DCT are impermeable to water
When ADH is absent, is urine more concentrated or more dilute?
blood urea nitrogen test (BUN)
What tests can detect a decrease in glomerular filtration rate?
plasma creatinine test
What can test for renal dysfunction?
Renal plasma clearance
_________is a value that describes the rate at which a given substance is removed from the blood. HELPS DETERMINE DRUG DOSAGES
Blood is removed from the body and passed through an artificial kidney system
mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
What are the three walls of the ureters?
What is the hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity?
What is the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the exterior?