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kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

What are the major structures of the urinary system?

Regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, blood sugar, excretion of wastes, production of hormones

What are the functions of the kidneys?


The functional unit of the kidney is the _______

Glomerular filtration

substances (water and solutes) move out of the blood and into the renal tubule

Tubular reabsorption

substances move back into the blood from the renal tubule

Tubular secretion

substances are released into the renal tubule to be excreted

Renal autoregulation, neural regulation, hormonal regulation

What are the three ways the glomerular filtration rate is regulated?

Renal autoregulation

afferent arterioles constrict when blood pressure rises, decreasing GFR

Neural regulation

sympathetic innervation of the afferent and efferent arterioles causes constriction, decreasing GFR

Hormonal regulation

renin-angiotensin mechanism

PCT, late DCT, and collecting duct

Where does tubular secretion occur?

antidiuretic hormone

Urine can be made more concentrated by the presence of __________

more dilute because the collecting duct and DCT are impermeable to water

When ADH is absent, is urine more concentrated or more dilute?

blood urea nitrogen test (BUN)

What tests can detect a decrease in glomerular filtration rate?

plasma creatinine test

What can test for renal dysfunction?

Renal plasma clearance

_________is a value that describes the rate at which a given substance is removed from the blood. HELPS DETERMINE DRUG DOSAGES


Blood is removed from the body and passed through an artificial kidney system

mucosa, muscularis, adventitia

What are the three walls of the ureters?

urinary bladder

What is the hollow, muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity?


What is the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the exterior?

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