118 terms

History of Architecture to 1850

Test 1
Terra Amata, southern France, 400,000 BC- - - first known dwelling
-example of wattle-and-daub construction
- was probably a seasonal hunter tribe
- space is being differentiated into areas of
use: hearth, sleeping
Temple at Ggantija, Gozo, Malta, 3000 B.C.
- Smaller, more complete, female figure
compared with temple plan outline,
suggests building's form had symbolic
importance related to fertility
- Megaliths used to construct walls at
Ggantija, Malta
Dolmen, Carnac, France, 4000 B.C.
- Early example of a constructed enclosed
- Probably originally a tomb
Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, 2800 B.C. (plate 1.5)

- A henge is a large circular flat area bounded
by a ditch, with a mound around the ditch
- Stages of construction of Stonehenge range
from 2800 B.C. to 1800 B.C.
- Henges are usually indefensible, so the
assumption is that this was made for ritual
- Stonehenge is one of the few that has its
ditch outside the mound
- On the summer solstice, the sun would rise
directly over the heelstone, when viewed
from the altar stone
- Stonehenge used for marking seasonal
changes for agriculture, and as an
Catal Huyuk, Turkey, 6500 B.C. (plate 1.1a)
- 1) Earliest organized settlement found
- 2) Early urban grid plan
- 3) "self-fortified" by its home walls
- Houses accessible through roofs
- Very few public spaces - mainly domestic
- Beginning of an urban revolution
Ishtar Gate, Babylon, 575 B.C.

- Example of round arch, and of crenellation
- Fired brick is now glazed in order to enliven
otherwise dull mud brick - also it is cast in
shaped molds representing deities and
powerful animals
Apadana (Audience Hall) of Darius, Persepolis, 518 B.C. (plates 1.17 & 1.18)

- Persia absorbing & adopting every other
culture's influence: crenellations, hypostyle
hall, relief sculpture, Lamassu gate, capitals
atop columns
The Step-Pyramid of Zoser, Saqqara, Egypt, 2630 B.C. (plate 1.21)

- Probably got so large because he lived
longer than expected
- Whole complex was built to replicate his
- Adds 5 mastabas atop original mastaba
- Creates a colossal building form elevating
importance of the tomb compared to the
others nearby
- No extra chambers within, though
- Earliest example of a known architect,
Temple of Edfu, Egypt, 237 BC (1.33)
- Example of a pylon wall - at one time also
had obelisks flanking entrance
Model of Temple of Amon, Karnak, Egypt, 1294 B.C. (plates 1.32 , 1.34)

- Example of a hypostyle hall & clerestory
- Central column capitals shaped like lotus
blossoms (along stagnant Upper Nile), while
side column capitals were meant to evoke
papyrus plants (along delta of Lower Nile
- So columns integrate Lower and Upper
- Clerestory window openings existed along
the upper sides of the Great Hall
Interior columns were carved and painted
with decoration
Funerary temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, Egypt, 1504 B.C. (plate 1.29, 1.30, 1.31)
- Example of a colonnade structure
- Begun by her father Thutmose I, to worship
his patron deities (Amon, Hathor), then to
worship him after his death
- But she places her tomb there, too - on a
perfect axis with Karnak 5 miles across river
- Use of terraces works with stone cliff,
scaling upwards - also matching striped
layering of stone
- Building this into rock, as security against
grave robbers
- Invites supplicant to climb higher - all this
is an example of importance of site for
Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel, Nubia, 1279 B.C.
- One last hurrah of monumental building
- Each is oriented so its sight line will
intersect the nearby temple sight lines in
the middle of the Nile, to enrich it
- These are not tombs, but simply temples to
assert pharaoh's power & divinity
- Ramses-Osiris statues are lined up inside
Ramses' Temple, Abu Simbel- sun doesn't
shine on last one, their god of the
Model of a nobleman's house, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, 1340 BCE
- Nobleman's compound on edge of river town
- Walled as a compound, and house had clerestory
windows - roof was used for activities
- There is a complex division of interior functions - an
indirect entryway or lobby, a central courtyard
around which were public rooms as well as
bedrooms (which were even on second level, it is
- Whole compound had places for grain and livestock,
servant quarters, even a temple and orchards
around a pool
- Used mud brick, usually a few bricks thick to protect
from sun's heat - and no foundation was made
Bedouin tents, Mali, 1960s
- Example of a membrane structure
- Typical of a nomadic structure, which is
easily moveable and easily reconstructed
- Responds to need to move with animal
herds or migrations (food sources), and
shifting water sources, as well as different
trading centers
- These spaces have divisions within,
according to family rank and function of
Eastern Pende chief's house, Kipoko, Congo, 1987
- Not wattle-and-daub, but similar: wattle and thatch,
or sometimes woven mats attached to wattle
- All elements have symbolic meaning. For example,
the weaving of the wattle in diamond shapes is
meant to symbolize scales of an iguana.
- Architecture-as-power-struggle: chief is allowed to l
live here and guard tribe's important votive objects,
but he cannot rebuild or maintain upkeep on the
building. Only the townspeople can agree to do so,
and they simply shift its placement, use its center
post and bring in new materials. This way, they
keep the chief's power in check - often they deny
his request to rebuild.
- They even set up a carved head at the edge of the
shrine's fence, facing the building, to keep an eye
on the chief
Adobe structures, Musgum, Chad, no date (plate 10.42)
- Example of adobe structures
- House combines central courtyard,
granaries, living quarters
- Houses are linked with walls, so whole unit
is not only for one extended family, but
acts as a fortification, too.
- Designs on exterior are not only decorative
but act to enable water to run-off more
Qasr, Kabao, Libya, no date (plate 10.49)
- Example of a qasr
- Built with rubble & adobe, as well as wood
beams that protrude to hold wood slat for
a temporary balcony
Kasbah, Ait-Benhaddou, Morocco, 757 (plate 10.52)
- Example of a Kasbah
- Made of stone, brick, and adobe
- Can be up to 10 stories tall
- Often built into a hillside
- Walls often have crenellations, clerestory
Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacán, Mexico, 100 B.C.
- Pyramid of the Sun surrounded by taluds at
base, and smaller temples nearby
- Uses same building techniques as in
Mesopotamia & Egypt: rubble core, faced
with stone veneer
- Battered (sloping) walls
- Central processional stair or ramp
- Temple once existed at the top
- Uses talud-tablero construction
Pyramid, Tikal, Guatemala, 650 A.D.
- Temples at Tikal are built on a raised flat
stone platform
- Most tableros not decorated
- Have roof combs
Sacrificial ball court, Copán, Honduras, 800 A.D.
- Ball courts held symbolic and religious
meaning, since one of the Mayan creation
myths told of sacred twins who played a
ball game, died violently, then were
resurrected to dominate other gods
- So the court embodies a form of both
conflict and resolution
- The sloping ramps on either side are
topped with rings to pass the ball through
- Looks like a variation on talud-tablero
- Measurements are highly standardized
everywhere they're built
- The ballcourt is one of the few examples
(along with Roman arenas) of an early
building type built for sport
- These did serve a ritual purpose when
located in a centrally-located temple
The Caracol (observatory), Chichén-Itzá, Mexico, 900 A.D.
- Probably was used as an astronomical
observatory (it rises above the thick
vegetation on a flat landscape)
- Unusual because it is cylindrical, it is
perforated with openings and it has a spiral
staircase within
- Openings correspond to key locations for
Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, 250 B.C. (3.4)
- example of a stupa
- The top of the Great Stupa already has
umbrella form that will become typical of
later stupa, known as a chatra (the bodhi
tree where Buddha became enlightened) -
the 3 tiers here signified this was a royal
- This is built over the relics of Buddha
- uses verdica and torana around stupa
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India, 950 A.D. (plate 3.16)
- Hindi started with form of rounded dome
over square base, and saw it as symbolic of
mountains their gods hailed from. The
vertical mountain (male upright stone) rises
over the cave or sanctuary (female
concentric circles - a womb-chamber)
- Lakshmana is a rectangular platform with 4
shrines at corners (foothills)
- The entrance faces east, as is the case in
most Hindu temples
- The whole temple complex is oriented to
the compass or cardinal points
- Interior space is minimal, as a dwelling
place (cave) for a deity
- So exterior appearance (mountain) is crucial
- Example of shikhara
- Sandstone is cut and placed with tenon
joins, almost no mortar
- Then stonemasons cut the rock into
sculptural forms illustrating tantric erotic
scenes showing fusion of human & divine
- All is built on a rectangular platform, with 4
secondary towers to draw eye to main
tower, which holds entrance porch, halls,
and inner sanctum
- Interior space is corbel-vaulted & small
Bungalow, Lahore, Pakistan, 1870
- Example of a bungalow
- The bungalow becomes part of western
suburban development
- Even working class can have their own yard,
& they need to with this residential type
- Bungalows require land around them - they
afford privacy better (can easily plant to
block neighbor's views) - but big porches
mean darker interior at front
Pagoda, Fogong Monastery, Shanxi province, China, 1056 (plate 4.3)
- Fogong pagoda is oldest wooden pagoda
- Built using Chinese beam-frame
construction and bracket sets
Forbidden City, Beijing, China, 1450 (plate 4.14)
- City design echoes Chinese house design:
- built on north-south axis
- most buildings face inward
- walled around the perimeter
- primary building (emperor's palace) is at
north end of axis
- south end is location of main gate
- hill rises behind the palace
- halls & residences defined by their
participation in public life
- all city and house organization arranged
according to laws of feng-shui
Model of Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 1616 (plate 4.34, 4.30 & 4.36)
- Interior uses tatami, fusuma, & tokonoma
- Site is arranged according to hogaku
Reconstruction of the palace complex, Knossos, Crete, ca. 1375 BC (plate 2.1)
- example of an open plan
- many entrances and exits
- no hierarchy of importance accorded many
of the spaces
- probably was the inspiration for the myth of
the labyrinth
The Lion Gate, Mycenae, Greece, 1250 B.C. (plate 2.8)
- Use of cyclopean masonry
- Importance of having entryway guarded
from above
- They are paying homage to a nature
- The only example of a large-scale stone
sculpture from this time & place
Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, Greece, 1250 B.C. (plates 2.10 & 2.11)
- Example of relieving triangle, & corbelled
- Was a treasury, then also a tomb
Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, 530 B.C.
- Example of early Greek temple, with 2
caryatids flanking the front entrance
Parthenon, Athens, Greece, 447 B.C. (plates 2.24 & 2.25)
- Parthenon isn't purely geometric - accounts
for vision, perception (entasis of columns,
corner columns width)
- Built according to the Golden Section, a
mathematical ratio felt to ideally balance
forms (facade and other parts of the
Parthenon establish this standard for
- Pediment sculpture had to adapt to the
building's configuration
- The exterior is in the Doric order
- Example of a peripteral temple, as well as
entasis of columns
Porch of the Maidens, Erechtheon, Athens, Greece, 421-406 BC (plates 2.29 & 2.30)
- Dedicated to Athena Polias
- Caryatid drapery is fluted, Doric echinus
crowns each
- Caryatids balance real/organic &
- Columns on the rest of the building are in
the Ionic order
Stoa of Attalos, Athens, Greece, 159 B.C. (plate 2.39)
- Borders northeast side of Athenian agora
- A double colonnade on two floors - creates
space for 42 shops, a kind of mall
- Essentially this is a shopping arcade,
providing built protection while one is in
- Has its origin in the temple of Hatshepsut in
Theater of Epidauros, Greece, 350 B.C. (plates 2.36 & 2.37)
- Theater starts as part of the cult of
Dionysus north of Athens
- an inverted partial cone set into a hillside, a
new architectural 'type'
- Theater starts as ritual re-telling of
foundational narratives built around their
gods (we now call 'myths')
- importance in theater of expression by
actors, and empathy by audience
- the building has raked floor at an angle that
allows good acoustics to enable those
seated higher to hear speech
Plan of Miletos, Turkey, 467 B.C.
- Platted by Hippodamus, as template for
colonial cities
- Example of an orthogonal grid plan
Great Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey, 180 B.C. (plate 2.41)
- 68 feet wide staircase, 30 feet deep
- Building is built for maximum theatrical
- Figures cascade down the sides of the
steps, or flow upwards depending on
where you observe them
- Just the steps themselves establish this as a
dramatic experience
- For theatrical effect, and to gain viewer's
empathic identification, figures are entering
our space, & crowded tightly together
Model of the Temple at Veii, ca. 515 B.C.
- Etruscan temples very different from Greek
temples: half the structure was porch, three
different rooms for deity worship
- Wooden structures built on stone stylobate,
had no pediment,
- Walls made of wattle and daub (branches
and mud)
- Front is a colonnade (2 or more parallel
rows of columns)
Plan of Timgad, Algeria, 100 B.C. (5.9)
- Example of a Roman castra plan for a
frontier fort city
Temple of Portunus, Forum Boarium (Cattle Market), Rome, 125 B.C. (5.18)
- example of a pseudoperipteral structure,
and uses engaged columns
Colosseum (a.k.a. Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, 72 A.D. (5.29)
- example of an amphitheater
- building to house spectacles of combat,
death and entertainment
- named after a nearby 120-foot statue of a
sun god that had been nicknamed
'Colossus' when it was a statue of Nero
- Message here was: Nero=bad emperor,
Vespasian=good emperor
- why 'good'? This is largest monument built
for the public's benefit up to that point
- could attend for free any time of day if you
were a Roman citizen
- All orders are here:
Bottom: Tuscan order (variation on Doric)
Middle: Ionic order
Top: Corinthian order
- Each floor done peripterally (exterior ring of
columns), flanking a round arch
- Top uses pilasters, engaged with a wall (as
at Temple of Portunus)
- 76 entrances, could get the 55,000
spectators in or out in 30 minutes
- pens and cells below theater floor, above
the old lake for drainage of blood & sewage
- colonnades around exterior, built using
barrel vaults
Pont du Gard, Nimes, France, 20 B.C. (unnumbered plate facing first page of chapter 5)
- example of an aqueduct - is 30 miles long,
drops 54 feet
- brings mountain water into city
- another example of massive public works
projects Romans made
- made of side-to-side shallow barrel vaults
Peristyle garden, House of Venus in the Shell, Pompeii, 79 A.D. (plates 5.31 & 5.32)
- Example of peristyle garden within Roman
private home
Pantheon, Rome, 117 A.D. (plates 5.19 & 5.20)
- Pan (all) theon (gods) - this is a temple to
worship all gods
- Hadrian uses front porch of an earlier
pantheon, built by Augustus'son-in-law,
- Porch comes from Etruscan style
- Porch looks patched onto a drum
- Uses Corinthian columns
- Hadrian plays with geometric shapes here
- Largest masonry dome ever made
(meaning: natural materials - in this case,
stone and concrete mix)
- Designed as a perfect sphere inside (a globe
could fit in it)
- Emperor Hadrian may have designed it
- Lowest part of drum walls are 20 feet thick,
to support weight above
- Arches are built into wall to reinforce, & this
is why it never fell
- Pediment over each niche alternates
between triangle & semi-circles
- Coffers diminish in size to give illusion of
great height
- Example of use of coffers, concrete, oculus,
& dome
Arch of Titus, Rome, 81 A.D.
- Built by Emperor Titus' brother, Domitian
- Triumphal arches symbolized a military
- First major one for an emperor
- Based on round arch entrances first seen in
Babylon, But this is freestanding
- Engaged Composite columns "support" an
entablature inscribed with message:
Senatus Populus Qui Romanus (SPQR): "the
Senate and people of Rome dedicate this
arch to divine Titus"
- To have a triumphal arch, you had to be a
royal, return with spoils & at least 5 troops,
& Senate had to declare you a victor
Apollodorus, Basilica Ulpia, Rome, 98 A.D.
- built by Trajan
- 300 feet long (football field), largest
covered space in ancient world
- Example of basilica - and is next to a forum
(both basilica & forum are public meeting
- Will become model for Western European
church architecture
Arch of Constantine, Rome, 313 A.D. (plate 5.16)
- Simply takes sculpture from Trajan,
Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, & reuses it
- Message implied here: I'm not just like
them, I AM them
wattle-and-daub construction
- a construction material using wattle (sticks woven
together) and daub (an aggregate, often with mud)
- earliest known form of construction
- Literally means 'large stone'
- Often used to describe building materials in
prehistoric architecture
- Enclosure made by 2 or more vertical stones
supporting one single stone
corbelled vaulting
- building by balancing each stone layer overhanging
last layer's projection
- eventually stones meet and form a ceiling or arch
- A megalith structure in which upright stones are
arranged in circular patterns
- Pair of stone posts supporting one stone lintel (so,
literally 'three stones') post-and-lintel construction
- Two verticals support a horizontal beam - this is the
most basic form of construction in architecture
- Projection at the top of a post, used to secure a
lintel to the post
- Socket hole that accommodates a tenon
- series of indentations along the top of a wall
- adds visual variety and pattern
- more importantly, provides spaces for protection
and defense against attackers
- Trapezoid-shaped tomb structure (mausoleum)
made of mud brick, enclosing interior space
- This is a forerunner of pyramid form
- These often appear in groups (like cemeteries
today), called a necropolis (city of the dead)
- Large sloping wall flanking a building entrance
- Tall, tapering, 4-sided pillar - ends with a pyramid
on top
- Symbolizes sun-god Ra, as a petrified ray of light
- Used now usually to commemorate military victories
hypostyle hall
- A space filled with columns that support a flat stone
- This is a version of post-and-lintel construction
- Usually this hall is the largest inner chamber of a
clerestory windows
- Small windows at top of a wall
- Usually occur in a long row
- These let light into large space, but allow security
- Long row of columns sharing an entablature
(basically, a series of posts sharing a lintel)
- Building material made from sand, clay, water and
organic material such as reeds - then shaped into
- Advantages: offer thermal protection, so used in hot
- Disadvantage: more prone to earthquake damage
- A storage fortress for a community's grain supply
- Also provides protection for families during war
- Common structure in Atlas Mountains of Morocco
- Fortified, square building consisting of multiple
family dwellings
- Corners usually have towers
axial plan
- Organization of a city or building around a central
- Usually indicates a culture that is socially organized
in a hierarchical manner (with several strata of
- Also indicates a society that desires stability &
- Often also combines symbolic meaning in its plan
talud-tablero construction
- sloping stone plane (talud) alternating with
platforms (tablero)
- side of tableros are often site of carvings framed in
stone surrounds
- this is a trademark of Mesoamerican architecture
roof comb
- A tall sculptural temple atop a Mayan pyramid
- Probably meant to be the one visible part of the
pyramid from a far distance
- Usually the only interior space in these structures
- The roof comb's interior is a corbelled vault, with
what were originally stucco decorations resting
atop the stones
- originally a Buddhist burial mound of rubble over
- later developed into symbolic building
- first were hemispherical, representing symbolic
associations with cosmos
- eventually became varied in form
- originally surrounded by viharas (monastic
- enclosure fence to protect temple as sacred, and
to mark a path for circumambulation
- undecorated, looks like it took its form from
wooden fencing
- entrance gate set in front of fence, and isn't a direct
- helps protect pilgrims during their meditations
- allows a site for elaborate sculptural representation
of deities
mountain-peak roof of a later Hindi temple
- residential building form that originated in Indian
- usually a one-story building, often with open-air
space between main floor & ground
- often has a verandah, and rooms are organized
around a central entry hall - no stairs exist within,
- Bungalows are probably the first truly global
architectural form
- Asian tower erected over relics of Buddha's presence
- Multilayered form owes itself to chatra form atop
Chinese beam-frame construction
- Columns held in place by vertical beams of shorter
and shorter length
- Purlins (horizontal beams running length of roof)
rest lightly atop structure
- Advantage: Roof profile is adjustable, not reliant on
Western triangulated truss support under roof
- Advantage: Weight is distributed solely onto the
columns, so walls can be located anywhere
bracket sets
- These are 2-part brackets to hold beams (lintels)
atop columns (posts)
- First: dou is a block like a capital, rested atop
- Second: gong is a pair of cantilevered brackets
hanging out - one pair is parallel to building axis,
other perpendicular
- These allow greater cantilevering for roof eaves
- This is what gives Chinese roof profiles their
distinctive appearance
- means 'wind-water'
- Chinese system for determining location of a
building, based partly on Confucianism and on
- Usually used to locate parts and furnishings
according to local environment and climate
- Means "direction angle"
- Japanese method for locating buildings, based on
Zen Buddhism
- based on compass directions and astrology
- other elements that determine the orientation of a
building are the five elements, site shape, location
of the house centre, and the feminine and masculine
sides of yin-yang
- Woven straw mat that is module determining size of
- wood-framed paper-covered screens that are
movable and removable in Japanese interiors
- these panels on the exterior walls are called shoji
- Alcove in teahouse displaying precious objects for
- Only secure solid wall in every interior
- literally 'double-axe', a symbol throughout the
Palace - so it gets associated with this building
- a maze of spaces and passageways
- a palace, in Greece (means 'large room')
- symmetrically arranged around an axis
- example of more limited access with progression
into internal space
- the forerunner of Greek temple design
- At right is a porch where one first enters
- In the middle a vestibule (a foyer)
- At left is the throne room, with a circular hearth and
throne along a side wall
- Very unlike Knossos palace, which isn't organized by
cyclopean masonry
- constructing buildings using massive limestone
- named after story of cyclops Polyphemous in The
- typical building material in Mycenaean architecture
- hard for attackers to destroy such walls
relieving triangle
- use of triangular opening to ease stress on post-
and-lintel doorway, pushing weight down more
toward the ends of the lintel
- very common architectural element in Mycenaean
peripteral building
- A temple with its exterior ringed with columns
- female figure statue that functions as a column
- platform on which a temple is built
- supporting post
top of a column
- lintel section above columns (has architrave, frieze &
horizontal band of relief sculpture
- triangular area framed by roof end, above
Doric Order
- earliest, from mainland Greece
- seen as more masculine & heavier
- capital is based on a sea urchin
- shaft has 7 drums - gendered as male
- drawback: capital seen as jutting out too far from
Ionic Order
- slightly later, from Ionia (Turkey)
- seen as more feminine & elegant
- capital is based on a ram's horn
- shaft has 8 drums - gendered as female
- drawback: column seen as having only 2 preferred
vantage points
Corinthian Order
- latest order, from Corinth, but popular in Rome
- its capital was thought to better visually finish
building's corners
- capital is based on an acanthus leaf
- shaft has 9 drums - gendered as young maiden
- scroll-shaped capital on Ionic column
- making a column convex at some point in order to
enhance its sense of scale & bulk
the Golden Section
- mathematical ratio felt to ideally balance forms
- facade and other parts of the Parthenon establish
this standard for architecture
- 8 columns on smaller sides, 17 on longer sides
- ratio is roughly 4:9
- ancient Greek meeting place for free citizens
- eventually becomes a marketplace
- is a forerunner to the Roman forum
orthogonal grid plan
- streets platted to intersect at right angles,
regardless of topography
- separate areas set aside for private, public &
religious functions
- imposes order on nature
- assigns a place to groups of inhabitants
- A flat vertical on a building that represents a column
- A Roman city plan developed for forts, and later for
colonial cities - it is wall-enclosed, in square form
- city is bisected by a cardo (N-S road) and
decumanus (E-W road)
- public spaces (forum, military HQ) were at central
road intersection
- houses in blocks, roads were numbered for ease
- 'False' row of columns around a temple's exterior -
due to use of supporting walls
engaged column
- Column that is embedded in a wall
- Projects outward
- Acts partially as a buttress
- Surrounds the cella
- means 'round theater'
- basically, doubling a theater, so audience surrounds
the stage
barrel vault
- a vaulted area created by extending a round arch
into 3-dimensions
- were being built by the Etruscans already
- a built means to conduct or transport water
- the initial entry area in a house
- just beyond the atrium, a greeting area of house
where public duties are performed
peristyle garden
- courtyard garden surrounded by columns
- building form created by rotating an arch 360
degrees - i.e., upper half of a sphere
- circular opening at the top of a building
- done to light interior using natural source
- Mix of cement, volcanic ash or pumice, gravel or
crushed rock aggregate, & water
- Allows liquid architectural design, freed of stone &
wood limitations
- Concrete is cheap & easily transported
- sunken panel (caisson) in a ceiling (often
- strength of ceiling is in coffers
- meant to imitate wooden beams
- an outdoor public meeting ground
- usually bounded by 3 colonnades & last side a
- in Greece had been a marketplace (the agora)
- in Rome, often square or rectangular, & in front of a
- became less for market than for city and social
- large building that functioned as indoor public
meeting area next to outdoor forum
- apses were location for public officials
- forerunner of church buildings