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Secondary Endosymbiosis

a process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell


How many membranes found around plastid after secondary endosymbiosis?

2 unrelated nuclei

How many nuclei found in cell after secondary symbiosis?


Process cell does in order to complete endosymbiosis


What has secondary endosymbiosis

Nucleus and nucleomorph

Name the two nuclei in the cell

Chlorophyll a and c and phycobiliproteins

What photosynthetic pigments to Cryptomonads contain?


The outer membranne is continuous with the ....... called the .....

Chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum

What does CER stand for?

Periplastidal endoplasmic reticulum

What does PER stand for?

Reduced genome

The nucleomorph has a ...........

Periplastidal space with vesicles

The nucleomorph is located in the.....


What has 4 membranes and a nucleomorph?

Heterokonta and Haptophyta

What two groups have 4 membranes but no nucleomorph?

Dinoflagellates and Euglenoids

What 2 groups have 3 membranes

Euglenoids and Chloroachniophyta

What 2 groups get their plastids from green algae (but different ones)

Cryptomonad, Heterokont and Haptophyta

What 3 groups get their plastids from red algae?


Alveolate (Dinoflagellate) plastids are thought to be from .... endosymbiosis?

CER (PER), Primary host plasmalemma, outer and inner membrane of primary plastid

nem the 4 membranes of a plastid that has been through secondary endosymbiosis

Phagosomal membrane fused with the ER

CER (PER) is a ...... membrane fused with.....

Bipartite (tri) signal

Protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes uses what type opf signal?

Proteins are made on ER membranes- signal sequence

Step 1 of protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes

ER associated ribosomes

Proteins are made by what type of ribosomes during protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes

Vesicle found in the periplastidal space

Step 2 in protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes is thought to involve crossing the primary host plasma membrane. What evidence supports this?

Toc-Tic system

Step 3 is what system in protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes

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