Secondary Endosymbiosis & Cryptomonads
a process in eukaryotic evolution in which a heterotrophic eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthetic eukaryotic cell which survived in a symbiotic relationship inside the heterotrophic cell
How many membranes found around plastid after secondary endosymbiosis?
2 unrelated nuclei
How many nuclei found in cell after secondary symbiosis?
Process cell does in order to complete endosymbiosis
What has secondary endosymbiosis
Nucleus and nucleomorph
Name the two nuclei in the cell
Chlorophyll a and c and phycobiliproteins
What photosynthetic pigments to Cryptomonads contain?
The outer membranne is continuous with the ....... called the .....
Chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum
What does CER stand for?
Periplastidal endoplasmic reticulum
What does PER stand for?
The nucleomorph has a ...........
Periplastidal space with vesicles
The nucleomorph is located in the.....
What has 4 membranes and a nucleomorph?
Heterokonta and Haptophyta
What two groups have 4 membranes but no nucleomorph?
Dinoflagellates and Euglenoids
What 2 groups have 3 membranes
Euglenoids and Chloroachniophyta
What 2 groups get their plastids from green algae (but different ones)
Cryptomonad, Heterokont and Haptophyta
What 3 groups get their plastids from red algae?
Alveolate (Dinoflagellate) plastids are thought to be from .... endosymbiosis?
CER (PER), Primary host plasmalemma, outer and inner membrane of primary plastid
nem the 4 membranes of a plastid that has been through secondary endosymbiosis
Phagosomal membrane fused with the ER
CER (PER) is a ...... membrane fused with.....
Bipartite (tri) signal
Protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes uses what type opf signal?
Proteins are made on ER membranes- signal sequence
Step 1 of protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes
ER associated ribosomes
Proteins are made by what type of ribosomes during protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes
Vesicle found in the periplastidal space
Step 2 in protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes is thought to involve crossing the primary host plasma membrane. What evidence supports this?
Step 3 is what system in protein translocation into a plastid with 4 membranes