Chapter 4 Mega Deck

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It is caused when a fatty material called plaque builds up inside blood vessels, hardening and narrowing them. This can block blood flow. A heart attack happens when the blood supply to the heart muscle is blocked. A stroke occurs when vessels in the brain are blocked.What causes cardiovascular disease?A heart attack happens when the blood supply to the heart muscle is blockedWhat causes a heart attack?A stroke occurs when vessels in the brain are blocked.What causes a stroke?high blood pressure, which is a sign of narrowed blood vessels.What is one contributing factor to cardiovascular disease?Cancer_____: an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells.YesIf left untreated can cancer cells spread to the rest of the body?1. blood 2. skin 3. brain 4. breast 5. lungs 6. liverCancer affects almost every organ in the body including:1. lung cancer 2. asthma 3. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)What are the different kinds of lung disease?1. emphysema 2. chronic bronchitisWhat are the two causes of COPD?emphysema______: results from damage to tiny air sacs in the lungsbronchitis_______: results from inflamed airwayssmoking and air pollution.What are the two mains causes of emphysema and chronic bronchitis?Asthma is a chronic condition. It causes a person's airways to tighten because of inflammation. This makes breathing difficult. Allergies and other factors can bring on an asthmatic episode. The cause of asthma is unclear, but it appears to be a result of heredity and specific environmental experiences. The experiences may be related to childhood, when asthma often begins.Discuss asthmadiabetes_______ : a disease that causes extreme blood sugar concentrations. If left untreated, it can damage the body and lead to death.In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to make enough insulin, which is needed for cells to absorb glucose. Type 1 diabetes often begins in childhood, and its causes are poorly understood.Discuss Type 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes usually develops more slowly over a person's lifetime. It occurs when cells become unable to use insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes can lead to lower insulin production as well. There are hereditary factors involved in type 2 diabetes, but the environment plays a large role.Discuss Type 2 diabetesallergies_______: an inappropriate immune response to a harmless substance in the environment.anaphylaxisMost allergies are just an aggravation, with symptoms like a stuffy nose, itchiness, or hives. But some allergic reactions can be life threatening, and they may lead to ___________. This involves a sudden drop in blood pressure and a swelling of the throat.1. heart disease 2. high blood pressure 3. type 2 diabetes 4. Gallstones 5. Breathing problems 6. Certain cancersThe more overweight or obese a person is, the more at risk they are of getting which health prolbems?obesity________: the condition of having too much body fat.20%In the United States what percent of 12 - 19 year olds are obese?BMIObesity is commonly determined by ____1. eating too many calories 2. Not having enough physical activityWhat are the two main causes of obesity?Eating a healthful diet lower in calories and performing regular moderate exerciseWhat's a good way to lose weight?obesity______: The condition of having an excessive weight for one's height, usually assessed by body mass index (BMI).tobacco________: A plant whose leaves are used in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco products.chronic disease_______: A disease that persists for a long time.tobaccoThe connection between _______ and chronic disease has been shown in many studies.lung cancer (and several other cancers)Tobacco is the main cause of _________smokingNine out of 10 deaths from lung cancer are caused by _________.1. emphysema 2. chronic bronchitis 3. it can aggravate asthmaIn addition to lung cancer, what other conditions are linked to tobacco use?Yes, by hardening and narrowing blood vessels, which increases the possibility of heart attack, stroke, and blocked blood flow to other organsCan tobacco increase your risk of cardiovascular disease? discuss1/5Cigarette smoke causes what fraction of deaths in the United States?sleep deficiency_________: The condition of getting too little sleep, sleep at the incorrect time of day, or too little of the right kinds of sleep.health_______: A person's overall physical, mental, and social condition. Not just the absence of disease or "feeling sick."1. Nutrition 2. Physical Activity 3. SleepWhat are 3 lifestyle habits you can adjust to decrease your risk of certain diseases.quantity and quality matters → eating too much food is one cause of obesity. But what you eat matters too.What does it mean that nutrition has two parts?diets high in sugar and saturated fatsWhat kind of diet can cause type 2 diabetes?common in dairy and fatty meatsWhere do saturated fats come from?1. sugar 2. saturated fat 3. trans fatsDiets high in _____, ______, _______ can increase the risk of heart disease.processed foodswhich foods have trans fats?a balanced diet of unprocessed foods that include plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.What kind of diet do physicians recommend?Regular physical activity reduces the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers. It also helps your body fight diseases. Physical activity can benefit mental health. It can reduce stress levels, depression, and anxiety.Why is regular physical activity very important?At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each weekHow much and what type of physical activity does the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).YesCan a sleep deficiency raise your risk of disease?1. Type 2 diabetes 2. ObesityInsufficient sleep has been identified as a risk factor for______ and ________.YesCan sleep affect mental illness such as depression?YesDoes lack of sleep suppress the immune system?YesDoes lack of sleep interfere with hormones?predisposition______: The condition of being more likely to experience something.detection_______: The act of finding something.treatment_______: Any procedure meant to correct a medical condition or disease.yesDoes heredity play a role in all non communicable and chronic diseases?1. prevention (you can avoid risk factors for disease) 2. health screening (you can look for specific indicators in tests)Why is it important to know your family history?prevention________: Actions taken to reduce the chances of something screening_______: The performance of diagnostic tests to identify particular diseases or conditions.1. cardiovascular disease 2. diabetes 3. obesity 4. cancerWhat are 4 diseases that are connected to family history?Heart attacks are events in which the heart stops working properly. This happens because the heart isn't getting enough blood. Your risk for a heart attack is much higher if a member of your immediate family has had one. Having a family history of heart attacks makes it particularly important for you to have good nutrition, a healthy weight, and plenty of physical exercise. All of these are ways to fight your possible hereditary predisposition, or tendency, toward cardiovascular disease. Your doctor may also want to perform some medical tests to assess your level of risk.Discuss Cardiovascular disease in terms of family history.If you have a family member with type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to develop it.Discuss diabetes in terms of family history.Exercising, eating right, and maintaining a healthy weight can prevent or delay the disease.What's a good way to prevent type 2 diabetes?thirst and frequent urination.What are common symptoms of diabetes?Using blood tests that measure blood sugarHow is diabetes detected?You may need to change your diet, exercise more, or take medications and insulin. It's also important to regularly monitor your blood sugar.If you have type 2 diabetes, what are steps you can take for treatment?Heredity probably plays a role in obesity. A shared family lifestyle may be even more important. Therefore, it is quite possible to avoid the health risks of obesity by changing your habits and maintaining a healthy weight. But family lifestyle habits are difficult to break. This is especially true if you try to change them on your own. A shared family commitment to a healthful diet and exercise, along with the positive feelings that come with a lower weight, are tools you can use to break the lifestyle mold.Discuss the role family plays in obesity.1. Ovarian cancers 2. breast cancers 3. testicular cancersSome cancers are known to have a strong hereditary link. What are examples?This will help you make informed decisions about prevention and screening. If your heredity puts you at a high risk for a certain cancer, frequent screenings and a healthful diet will help prevent it. You should also avoid risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and toxic chemicals.If you have a family history of cancer, why is it important to tell your doctor?YesIs air quality an environmental factor that affects your health?1. Outdoor Air Quality 2. Home Air Quality' 3. Workplace Air QualityWhat are three sources of "air quality" that are risk factors for disease?Outdoor air quality varies by geographic location. Air quality in cities can be poor because of smog from vehicles and industry. Contaminants from these sources can cause lung disease, including lung cancer. Poor outdoor air quality can also cause symptoms of asthma.Discuss outdoor air quality as a risk factor for disease.The air in houses and apartments can contain many contaminants. One of the most common is secondhand smoke. If a family member smokes inside, other people in the household are at a higher risk for lung and cardiovascular disease. In children, secondhand smoke increases the risk of infections and asthma. Molds in the house can also cause chronic allergies and asthma. And radon, an invisible gas found in the basements of some homes, is radioactive and can cause lung cancer.Discuss home air quality as a risk factor for disease.Workplace air quality depends on the type of work. Office workers may be exposed to many of the same contaminants found at home, such as mold. Workers in manufacturing industries may be exposed to toxic chemicals in the air, and farmworkers may be exposed to pesticides. These chemicals can lead to cancer, lung disease, or other illnesses.Discuss workplace air quality as a risk factor for disease.1. houses 2. landfills. 3. factories 4. fumes from car exhaust 5. agricultural practicesWhere are examples of where chemical toxins are found?1. Outdoor toxins 2. Toxins in the home 3. Toxins at workWhat are three general locations where chemical toxins are found?People living or working near industry or agriculture may be exposed to outdoor toxins. Farms that use pesticides can contribute to air and water pollution. City drinking water systems are monitored for toxins. Well water is often not monitored and may contain toxic chemicals.Discuss outdoor toxins.Most exposure to toxic chemicals comes through the air. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of chemicals found in paints, fuels, and many other products that evaporate into the air and can be toxic. Lead, once an ingredient in paint, may still exist in old houses. Lead paint is a risk to infants, who might eat the paint chips. And home pesticides contain strong toxins that can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Each toxin has its own effects, but they can include cancer, lung disease, liver disease, and brain damage.Discuss toxins in the homeExposure to workplace toxins depends on the type of work being performed. Industrial workers may be exposed to toxins produced or used during manufacturing. Industries using toxins with known effects have procedures in place to protect workers. These procedures might include limiting exposure and using protective clothing to protect the skin while handling the toxins.Discuss toxins at work.yesCan ultraviolet (UV) radiation cause cancer?DNAUV radiation is invisible light that has enough energy to damage the ______ in skin cells. It can cause cells to become cancerous.heredityBecause of ________, some people are more prone to skin cancer than others.Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight and cover bare skin with clothing or sunscreen when in the sun.How can you protect yourself from UV screening_______: The performance of diagnostic tests to identify particular diseases or conditions.oral health_______: The state of health of the mouth and especially the teeth and gums.1. weight and height 2. blood cells 3. oral health 4. blood pressure 5. Childhood Blood Test 6. Childhood Behavior TestWhat are 6 types of health screenings?Standard blood tests often check the cell counts in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets (which are cell fragments). These counts reflect the health of your immune system. Blood tests also check the levels of many chemicals in your blood, including sodium, calcium, and potassium. In addition, physicians can use blood tests to measure glucose (sugar), cholesterol, fats, and proteins. Glucose levels indicate whether you have diabetes; cholesterol and fats indicate your risk for heart disease.Discuss the benefit of blood tests.Regular visits to the dentist are important. Oral health, meaning the health of your mouth and in particular your gums and teeth, has effects beyond just your mouth. Evidence suggests that oral health has an effect on diabetes and possibly even cardiovascular disease.Discuss oral health as a health screening tool.Physicians use a device with an inflatable sleeve to measure blood pressure. Blood pressure consists of two readings, or numbers, with the higher number reported "over" the lower number. The higher number is systolic pressure: the pressure when the heart is contracting. The lower number is diastolic pressure: the pressure when the heart is relaxed. Healthy blood pressures are less than 120 over 80. High blood pressure indicates a risk of cardiovascular disease.Discuss blood pressure as a screening tool.Children receive a few blood screenings that typically aren't done on adults. A doctor might test a child's level of hemoglobin (the protein in the red blood cells of vertebrates that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues). Children may also be tested for toxins they are at risk of encountering, like lead. Less commonly, children's cholesterol may be tested if they have a parent with high cholesterol.Discuss childhood blood tests as a screening tool.Parents and physicians usually closely monitor children's brain and behavioral development. Doctors may also test a child's hearing and vision to make sure those senses are functioning properly. Doctors may perform tests to identify early signs of autism spectrum disorder. These tests may evaluate how the child interacts with other people, as well as his or her hand-eye coordination and conceptual abilities.Discuss childhood behavioral tests as a screening tool.YesAre most chronic diseases preventable?health care______: Medical services provided by an institution, physician, nurse, or technician.prevention_________: Actions taken to reduce the chances of something happening.Everyone in the United States is now required to have health insurance. This is a financial tool that pays for medical costs in exchange for regular payments into the system. In the long run, it is less expensive to have health insurance than to pay for health care yourself. There are also government programs that may lower your insurance payments.Should I have health insurance?Choose fruits and vegetables, spend less on meat and a little more on fish, and avoid processed foods.How can I afford healthful food?You can participate in activities that don't cost money. Try walking and running. Do push-ups and stretches. Play games on shared spaces like basketball courts.Should I join a gym to increase my physical activity?Sufficient sleep is an absolute requirement for your health. If you can't reduce the time you spend on school assignments and your job, cut back on unhealthful activities. Watch less television or spend less time gaming.How can I get more sleep? I have to study and I have a job.Smoking and chewing tobacco are known causes of lung disease and cancer — and they are expensive! Get help to quit, and spend the money on healthful behaviors instead.Can I afford to smoke?You have control over what you eat at home. Make good choices; eat whole, nutritious foods. Food cooked at home is more healthful — and less expensive — than fast food.I don't have time to cook. Can I eat fast food to save time?See a doctor and a dentist at least once a year. Even if you do not have insurance, paying a little for prevention will save you larger expenses later.Is a visit to the doctor going to cost me a fortune?public health policy_______: Government laws, regulations, and practices that promote the health and well-being of people in a community.public health policyA ___________ determines what health-related programs are offered to a community.Governments and other organizationsWho develops public health policy?To educate community members on health issues such as vaccinations, sanitation, and disease prevention.What are public health policy programs designed to do?1. International 2. National 3. Local 4. StateWhat are the 4 levels in which organizations operate to determine public health policy?The World Health Organization (WHO) is the main international public health agency.What is the international organization involved in public health programs?1. Surgeon General 2. U.S. Public Health Service 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 4. National Institutes of Health (NIH) 5. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).What are the national level organizations involved in public health policy in the United states?Enforcing laws on sanitation, safety, disease reporting, and quarantines. States are also responsible for licensing health care facilities and workers. The states are also involved in a variety of education programs.Discuss state's role in public health programs.Many local governments in the United States have public health departments. These departments work with state departments. They may perform some of the following functions: 1. Disease surveillance and reporting 2. Vaccination 3.Communicable and chronic disease education 4. Food service inspectionsDiscuss the local government's role in public health programs.The WHO is involved in programs around the world to reduce the number of malaria infections and deaths. Their methods include distributing indoor insecticide and sleeping nets that have insecticide coatings. Specialized drugs are also used to reduce the risk of infection. Scientific research has improved the ability to diagnose and treat infections when they occur.What is an example of an international level public health initiative? DiscussIn 2010, the United States developed a national vaccine plan. The plan's goal was to create and ensure access to new and improved vaccines. This included enhancing the vaccine safety system and supporting communication to enhance vaccine decision making.What is an example of a national level public health initiative? DiscussWithin the United States, each state is tackling the public health issue of obesity in different ways. These plans depend on local issues and culture. New Mississippi laws mandate nutritious school lunches and vending machine choices. They also outline minimum physical activity levels for students.What is an example of a state level public health initiative?Chronic diseasesPublic health policies are written to help reduce the effects of ________. For example, when a connection was found between cigarette smoking and disease, public health policies were created to get people to stop smoking.The U.S. Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970What major U.S. public policy was designed to minimize smoking?Banned cigarette ads on TV and radio. It also added health warnings to cigarette packages.What did the U.S. Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970 do?Taxing tobacco, creating education campaigns, and passing laws banning indoor smoking.What anti-smoking programs were done at the state and local level?communicable diseasesHealth care workers must report certain ____________ to public health authorities. They must do this when they treat a patient with the disease.1. Chicken pox 2. Diphtheria 3. Gonorrhea 4. Whooping cough 5. Salmonella poisoningWhat are examples of communicable diseases that health care workers must report to public health authorities?automated external defibrillators (AEDs)________: Devices designed to restore a normal heartbeat when a person's heart stops or loses its rhythm. AEDs can be operated with only limited skills or knowledge.Fewer than 8 percent.What percent of people who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest survive?two to five times moreFewer than 8 percent of people who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest survive. How much more would survive if more AED's (automated external defibrillators) were made available?1. improve and maintain your health 2. take measures to prevent disease 3. reduce risk behaviors.What are 3 things health education can motivate you to do?risk behaviors________: Actions that increase a person's chance of suffering an illness or injury.YesDo public health policy in most states require health education in schools?vaccinationsOne public health strategy for controlling diseases is to make laws that require __________.vaccination_________: The injection of a substance that stimulates a person's immune system and prevents him or her from getting a disease if it is encountered later.yesTo protect the population, do vaccination rates need to be high?between 95 and 98%For the measles vaccine to be effective, what percentage of people must be vaccinated?yesDo most states allow childhood vaccines before a child can enter school?smallDo vaccinations carry a large risk or small risk?food inspection_________: The regulation of food production and processing. It ensures that food is safe and free of disease-causing organisms.The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)Which agency develops safe procedures for food handling?The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)Which agency is responsible for inspecting meat, poultry, and eggs?meat, poultry, eggs.What does the USDA inspect?The plan is to create a system that allows all food to be traced back to where it was grown or produced.What is a new food tracing policy that many governments agencies and industry are using?This is to check where contamination might occur. For example, egg farms are inspected to make sure the hens are healthy and the facilities are clean. Egg processing plants are inspected to make sure the eggs are washed and packaged properly. Finally, the facilities where eggs are processed into egg products are inspected. That way, food producers ensure that all machinery and procedures are clean and will not introduce contamination.What does it mean that meat, poultry, and egg product inspection occurs at all stages?250Food-borne diseases are caused by more than _____ different types of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens.about one is sixHow many people every year become sick from a food borne disease?About 128,000How many people every year need to be hospitalized from food-borne diseases?3000Food-borne illnesses are responsible for how many deaths each year.The CDCWho monitors food-borne illness outbreaks when they occur?1. Department of Agriculture 2. FDA 3. state agenciesTo prevent food-borne illnesses, government agencies such as ________, the ______, and _______ inspect food during its productionvisit the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website can you go to access all of the state organ donor registration sites and learn more about organ donationorgan donation_______: The system by which organs of people who have recently died are donated for transplant into other people.No, liver and kidney donation can happen when the donor is alive.Do all organ donations happen after the donor has died? Explain.IranAll countries except _______ have laws that prohibit the sale of organs."opt-in"In the United States, organ donation requires specific consent from the donor (or his or her family). This is called an "_____ system.opts outIn some other countries, everyone is considered a donor unless he or she _______opt-out systemsAre donation rates higher in opt in systems or opt out systems?In the United States, you can include your name in your state's registry of organ donors. In many states, this is done through the Department of Motor Vehicles and may involve a form obtained with your driver's license. You should also tell your family of your preferences.What can you do in the United States if you would like to be an organ donor?What is the biggest issue that complicates the use of AEDs to save lives?Legal Liability → The laws about maintaining the devices, training, and legal protection for untrained bystanders who use them vary among states.Disease__________: A condition that disrupts the structure or function of a living thing.Noncommunicable Diseases__________ happen when something goes wrong in our bodies, such as in the case of an allergy or most cancers.Communicable Disease__________: Diseases that can be transferred from one individual to another. This happens by direct or indirect contact, or through a third organism.Communicable DiseasesWhat kinds of diseases can be caught like a cold?Pathogen__________: A living or nonliving entity that passes through hosts and causes disease.1: Bacteria 2: Virus 3: Fungi 4: Protists and wormsWhat are the four common forms of pathogens?MillionsHow much bacteria lives in one human body?NoAre all bacteria pathogenic?Infection__________: The presence of a reproducing pathogen in another organism.Bacteria___________: A type of single-celled organism without a nucleus.Virus__________: A simple nonliving infectious agent. It is composed of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat.Staphylococcus aureusWhat is an example of a bacteria?No, only a few are badAre all bacteria bad?1: Infects our tissues 2: Feeds on our cells 3: Produces poisonsWhat three ways does bad bacteria cause diseases?1: Immune system 2: AntibioticsWhat are two ways diseases can be killed?They invade cells and reproduce over and over againHow do viruses survive?1: Immune system 2: Antiviral drugsWhat are two ways viruses get removed from the human body?NoAre antibiotics effective against viruses?NoCan all viruses be removed from the body?A coldWhat is an example of a virus?YesAre all viruses pathogenic?Fungi__________: Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms that grow in our bodies from good bacteria imbalances.1: Candida albicans 2: Athletes footWhat are two examples of fungi?NoAre all fungi pathogenic?Protists__________: 50% single celled microorganisms that cause some of the diseases around the world.1: Malaria 2: Giardia 3: Amoebic dysenteryWhat three diseases can protists cause?Parasitic Worms__________: Causes many common diseases1: Nematodes 2: Tapeworms 3: Flukes 4: FlatwormsWhat are four types of worms?1: Hookworm 2: Schistosomiasis 3: Intestinal tapewormsWhat are three diseases you can get from worms?1: Cold 2: Diseases from animals 3: Bacterial infections 4: Flu 5: Sexually transmitted diseases 6: Childhood diseasesWhat are the six most common communicable diseases?No - it lowers productivity and increases the chances of others getting sickShould you go to work with a cold?YesDoes almost everybody catch a cold at some point in their lives?1: Lyme disease 2: West nile virusWhat are two examples of diseases we get from animals?No, but they can cause many health problems such as deathAre animal diseases common?Yes, but recently they have been becoming resistant to antibioticsDuring the last half of the 1900s, were there cures for most diseases?1: Meningitis 2: Sexually transmitted diseases 3: Pneumonia 4: Eye and skin infectionsWhat are four of the more recently resistant infections?They are becoming more resistant to the medicationWhy do bacterial infections now have serious health consequences like death?Some diseases are becoming more resistant to the medicationWhy do hospitalization and long term treatment costs rise?Resistant__________: Unable to be destroyed by antibiotics or harmful chemicals.Vaccine__________: A substance given orally or by injection. It activates the immune system against a particular pathogen. It prevents infection when the pathogen is encountered.Flu__________: More serious than a cold. Also known as influenza.1: Old people 2: Infants 3: Others with weakened immune systemsWho does the flu target?ThousandsHow many people does the flu kill each year?1: Aids 2: Human papillomavirus (HPV) 3: Gonorrhea 4: Syphilis 5: Genital herpes 6: ChlamydiaWhat are six examples of sexually transmitted diseases?NoCan all sexually transmitted diseases be cured?NoDo most childhood diseases have serious consequences?Yes, it will help the immune system prepare for when you do get the diseaseShould you get a vaccine to be protected for childhood diseases?1: Measles 2: Chicken pox 3: Whooping cough (pertussis) 4: MumpsWhat are four examples of childhood diseases?Anytime in their livesWhen can a disease affect someone?YesDo some countries struggle due to diseases?The tropics where there is humid climateWhere are most diseases common?Risk factor___________: Any condition that increases a person's chance of contracting a disease.1: Poverty 2: Lack of education 3: Poor public health programs 4: Poor health care systemsWhat are four factors that cause a higher chance of disease?HIV__________: Causes aids.NoIs there a known cure for aids?By providing education to the publicWhat is a way that people can lower aids infection rates?Drinking water with fecal matter and many pathogensWhat do diarrheal diseases come from?1: Cholera 2: Rotavirus 3: Protist and worms infectionsWhat are three examples of diarrheal diseases?ChildrenWho is the most vulnerable to diarrheal diseases?1: Cleaner water 2: Rotavirus vaccines 3: Improved treatmentsWhat are three reasons why the diarrheal disease death rate is going down?Diarrheal diseases__________: Caused by bad drinking water.2 million peopleHow many people are diagnosed with malaria every year?600,000 peopleHow many people die of malaria every year?Every minuteHow often does a kid in africa die from malaria?MosquitosWhat transmits malaria?1: Insecticide-coated mosquito net 2: Insecticide sprayWhat are two ways to prevent malaria?YesIs the number of malaria cases declining?1/9 of all child deathsWhat is the number of children deaths due to malaria?1/6 of all peopleWhat is the number of people in the world that neglected tropical diseases affect?No, there are so many on them that there isn't enough funding and research to do find one.Is there a cure for neglected tropical diseases?Diseases__________: Adds to poverty when not addressed.1: Schistosomiasis 2: Hookworm 3: River blindness 4: Elephantiasis 5: Intestinal roundworms 6: Chagas diseaseWhat are six examples of neglected tropical diseases?YesCan neglected tropical diseases lead to death?1: Indirect contact 2: Direct contact 3: Animal vectorsWhat are the three ways that pathogens can be caught?Staph infection__________: Bacteria infection.1: West nile virus 2: Malaria 3: Lyme disease 4: Rabies virusWhat are the four main animal viruses?1: Avoid direct contact 2: Avoid contaminated objects 3: Avoid contaminated food and water 4: Avoid disease-carrying animalsWhat are the four ways to avoid diseases?Epidemic__________: The occurrence of a communicable disease in many members of a community at one time.Pandemic__________: The occurrence of a communicable disease in many individuals around the world.1: Education 2: Public health reporting 3: Vaccination 4: Early interventionWhat are four strategies used to prevent communicable disease outbreaksCDCWhat is a health education website?When doctors are able to cure a disease because it is found very early before it rapidly spreads.What is early intervention?When people report any weird disease to doctors. This helps cure diseases early on.What is public health reporting?1: Awareness 2: Affordability 3: AccessWhat are the three factors that affect family health care?4 millionAccording to CDC, how many kids did not have healthcare insurance in 2014?1: Climate 2: Poverty 3: Age 4: Hygiene 5: Nutrition and sleep 6: Risk behaviorsWhat are the six most common risk factors?hygiene________: A set of practices or behaviors that are meant to prevent disease.hygienePracticing good _______ means engaging in routine behaviors and activities that help you prevent disease.infectious agent________: Something that can be transmitted from one individual to another which causes disease. Can be transmitted directly or indirectly. The agent may be living, like a bacterium, or nonliving, like a virus.bacteria, fungi, and virusesWhat are examples of an infectious agent?nonlivingAre viruses living or nonliving?hygiene______: A set of practices or behaviors that are meant to prevent disease.transmit______: To move something from one location to another. One example is the movement of disease from one host to another.1. environment at home 2. school 3. work 4. production of food 5. cosmetics 6. pharmaceuticalsIn addition to your own body, where else do hygiene practices apply?Washing your body regularly is important in preventing disease. Soap and water kill many bacteria. Washing will also remove dirt and bodily secretions that may provide an environment for pathogens to thrive in.Why is it important to wash your body regularly?Yes, We all have microorganisms that live on our bodies and help keep us healthy. For this reason, regular use of antibacterial soap and other strong sterilizing substances such as bleach is no longer recommended.Is being too clear a problem? Discuss.YesCan water be a source of disease?Swimming pools are usually kept germ-free using chlorine, but natural water sources cannot be treated. The warmer a body of water is, the more likely it is to contain disease organismsHow can water be a source of disease?Do, it could have diseaseShould you swallow water from lakes and rivers?No, it could have disease.Should you drink from open water?No, the water could infect the cutShould you swim with an open cut?If you are cut while swimming, leave the water and apply a disinfectant. → Wear protective shoes when walking on rocks or sharp objects in the water.What should you do if you are cut while swimming?Pets and the other animals around us are possible sources of disease. Pets in particular need help with hygiene. Cat litter boxes should be cleaned regularly, and dog and cat feces should not be allowed to collect in yard areas or inside. Birds and lizards often carry Salmonella, and their cages should be kept clean and sanitized. Do not leave food scraps out, as they will attract rats and mice. These animals can transmit disease, particularly through their feces. Feed cats and dogs inside to avoid attracting wildlife.Discuss pets and diseasewater quality________ is one of the many hygiene issues that are related to the environment that people live inPeople in these areas can get clean water by boiling or chemical treatment.Clean drinking water is essential for good health. However, many people around the world are forced to drink from open bodies of water or inadequate wells. These water supplies can be contaminated with disease-causing pathogens. What is one way to purify this water?Sewage systems reduce the risk of diseases that are spread through fecal matter. In places without sewage systems, finding other ways to transport sewage away from communities and drinking water sources is important. Systems that treat the sewage before it is released into natural water sources are the best at preventing disease.What's the importance of a good sewage system?overcrowding__________ makes it easier for diseases to be transmitted from one person to another. This happens in places like schools, shopping malls, and commuter trains and buses.It increases stress levels, which can interfere with proper immune system function.In addition to spreading disease, what is another negative feature of overcrowding?1. municipal water tower 2. sewage treatment plant 3. overcrowdingWhat are three sources of disease transmission?Handwashing________: is your best defense against the common cold.Use the inside of your elbow — it's not likely to touch anything, and it will stop the virus from becoming airborne and spreading.How should you cover yourself when you sneeze or cough?1. Thoroughly cook all meat, poultry, and egg products. 2. The second step is to clean all surfaces and utensils that came in contact with the raw meat and eggs. 3. Rinse with clean water.One common cause of food poisoning is Salmonella bacteria, which live on certain types of raw food. How do we kill these bacteria?No, Simply wiping will only spread the bacteria — use soap and spend a little time scrubbing. The physical scrubbing will damage the bacterial cells.When you clear surfaces, is wiping good enough?Athlete's foot_________ is a fungus that infects the skin. It is often found on the feet, but it can also affect other parts of the body.In a public area where people are walking in bare feet, such as swimming pools and gym showers.Where is the athlete's food caught?To prevent being infected, wear sandals or flip-flops in shower and pool areas. Also, wash your feet with soap and water every day. Wear a fresh pair of socks each day, and avoid prolonged periods when your feet are damp from water or sweat.How do you prevent an athlete's foot?mucous membraneThe flu virus must move from an infected person to another person's _______.Mononucleosis_________ is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.The Epstein-Barr virusWhat virus causes mononucleosis?1. fatigue 2. swollen lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen. 3.You may also have a fever, headache, or skin rash.What are symptoms of mononucleosis?MononucleosisWhat is the "kissing disease"?Mononucleosis is commonly called the "kissing disease," because one way of getting it is by kissing an infected individual. It is also possible to catch the disease by sharing items that have been in contact with an infected person's saliva.How can you get mononucleosis?By not sharing water bottles, eating utensils, toothbrushes, or lip gloss.How can you avoid getting mononucleosis?Because the virus never leaves the body of an infected person, even someone who no longer has symptoms can pass it along to others.Can a person who no longer has symptoms of mononucleosis still pass it along? ExplainConjunctivitisWhat is another term for pinkeye?a virus or a bacterium.What causes pinkeye?redness, increased tearing, a thick discharge from the eye, or itchy and burning eyes.What are the symptoms of pinkeye?YesCan pinkeye be transmitted from person to person?By careful handwashing and not touching your eyes. Do not share washcloths and towels. In addition, do not use "tester" makeup on your eyes.If you are around someone who has pinkeye, how can you avoid infection?Discard your makeup, throw away disposable contact lenses, and disinfect permanent contact lenses.What should you do with your eye products if you can pinkeye and recovered from it?StaphylococcusWhat is the bacteria that causes a staph infection?Many infections caused by Staphylococcus bacteria are harmless and easily treated. However, some strains of the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics — these strains can be dangerousHow do you treat a spah infection?staph_______ infections often infect the skin.through direct or indirect contactHow are staph infections transmitted?Normal washing is important. Cuts should generally be treated with an antibiotic ointment and covered. Do not share towels, sheets, or clothing with someone who has or might have an infection. If you have an infection, keep it covered while using a towel. This prevents spreading the bacteria.How do you prevent staph infections?your whole lifeHow long does a cold sore virus stay with you?herpesMany people experience painful cold sores on their lips and in their mouth. These are caused by a ______ virus.mucous membranes Note: do not touch your eyes after touching a cold sore.You should take care not to touch a cold sore, as it may spread to other __________ of your body.You should not kiss anyone or share food utensils while you have a cold sore. Regular handwashing is also important.You can pass on the herpes virus, particularly when it is active. What should you especially do if it's active?oral health________: The state of health of the mouth and especially the teeth and gums.1. flossing 2. brushing 3. checkups 4. cleaningWhat are a few simple steps to help you protect yourself from most pathogens and maintain oral healthAt least once a dayHow often should you floss?1 - 2 times per yearHow often should you have dental checkupsAt least once per yearHow often should you have dental cleaning?At least twice a dayHow often should you brush your teeth?at least 2 minHow long should each brushing session last?Flossing at least once a day finishes the job of removing bacteria and plaque that starts with brushing. It also does a better job of cleaning below the gum line. Floss with about a foot and a half of dental floss, with most of it wrapped around your fingers. Slide the floss between each pair of teeth and gently move the tightened floss up and away from each tooth. As you floss, shift to work with clean parts of the floss. Interdental brushes (IDB) are an effective alternative to flossing.Discuss flossingRegular visits to the dentist prevent tooth decay and gum disease from becoming a serious problem. Some people are more prone to tooth decay than others and may need more frequent visitsWhy are dental checkups important?Teeth cleaning done by a professional removes plaque from the teeth below the gums. This plaque is a buildup of bacteria and their products and can lead to gum disease and cavities.Discuss the value of professional teeth cleaning.Be systematic, making sure to cover both the inner- and the outer-facing surfaces in each area. Try to brush between the teeth as much as possible. Use a soft-bristled, smaller brush, as it can reach between teeth better than a larger brush. Replace your brush every three months or as soon as the bristles become frayed.Discuss brushing.Studies do not show that using these soaps lowers infection rates.Do antibacterial soaps lower infection rates?In fact, they may actually cause harm. There are concerns that antibacterial soaps and sprays will lead to resistant strains of bacteria. This is already happening with antibiotics. Animal studies also show that a common antibacterial additive may imitate thyroid hormone. This might cause metabolic problems in humans. → However, antibacterial soaps are still recommended in some health care settings.What is the concern regarding antibacterial soaps?Although dental plaque is known to be harmful, there are no scientific studies showing that removing dental plaque in professional teeth cleanings prevents gum disease and tooth decay. There is also no scientific evidence showing that more frequent cleanings are more effective. This does not mean that teeth cleaning has no benefits; it simply means that more advanced studies need to be done.Does removing plaque in professional teeth cleanings prevent gum disease and tooth decay?Yes! → Handwashing has been shown to help kill disease-causing organisms and prevent illnesses. In child care settings, handwashing by staff and children has been shown to reduce the rates of diarrheal disease and colds.Does science support the benefit of washing hands?Yes! There is scientific evidence that teeth brushing reduces cavities. Using toothpaste that contains fluoride has the greatest effect. Daily teeth brushing, particularly when combined with education on proper methods, also reduces the amount of gum disease.Does brushing your teeth actually decrease the number of cavities you get?Soaps may be antibacterial or regular, and they may be in liquid or solid form. Antibacterial soaps prevent illness no more effectively than regular soaps, and they have drawbacks. For home use, choose a regular soap. Liquid soaps may be better in a group situation, because solid soaps can harbor bacteria that can then be transferred from one person to the next. Soaps may have additives that can irritate or dry the skin. Research these online to identify which additives may cause problems, and then read the soap labels.How do I decide which soap to use?The American Dental Association certifies toothpastes, so choose one that has its seal. Fluoride is known to prevent cavities, and almost all toothpastes contain it — make sure you choose one that does. Some toothpastes are made especially for sensitive teeth. Others are made to whiten teeth, control tartar (plaque), or reduce gum inflammation. Again, do some online research with reputable, independent sources to determine whether the additives in toothpastes are safe and will do what they claim.How do you choose the right toothpaste?When buying a sunscreen, you must choose the SPF (sun protection factor) and the chemical formulation. SPF is a measure of protection from UVB radiation. Dermatologists recommend SPF 15 or more.What should you look for when you buy sunscreen?SPF 15 or more.How much SPF should you have on your sunscreen?The effects of these compounds on health have not been well studied.How helpful are sunscreens that use organic compounds?mental emotionalWhen you look your best, you also feel good about yourself, and that affects your ____l and ________ health. This in turn strengthens your social health, as you will be more confident around others.magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)__________: A technique to show a person's internal anatomy. Uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce images.technology_________: The use of scientific knowledge in practical applications. It often results in new machines or processes.yesAre there risks associated with technology that improves our health?anaphylactic allergic reaction_________: A sudden allergic reaction that can lead to death. It is characterized by skin redness or hives, swelling of the respiratory passages, low blood pressure, and a rapid heartbeat.claustrophobia________: A fear of being in enclosed or narrow places.1. three-dimensional high resolution image 2. Unlike x-rays, MRIs can show images of soft tissue. 3. Safe No damaging radiation 4. The compounds given to patients to increase the contrast of the image are less likely to cause an anaphylactic allergic reaction than those used in other procedures.What are the advantages of MRI?1. Expensive 2. Strong magnetic field produced by the machine creates risks for people with implants like pacemakers or metal pins. 3. Metal objects must be removed from the imaging room to prevent them from becoming projectiles. 4. The imaging process takes more time than CT scans or x-rays 5. Some people experience claustrophobia while in machines. 6. Although the MRI electromagnetic field is safer than other forms of radiation, there are still concerns about known risk.What are the disadvantages of MRI?digitalAre x-rays today mostly on film or digital?1. less expensive 2. faster than film x-rays 3. less radiation 4. better qualityWhat are advantages of digital x-raysultrasound_______: A technique to show a person's internal anatomy. Uses a machine that produces sound waves which are too high to be heard.ultrasoundA technology that uses echoes from high-frequency sound vibrations.1. It is possible to image soft tissues, allowing doctors to examine muscle, cartilage, and tendons. 2. equipment is smaller and less expensive than other imaging technologies. 3. equipment is portable so you don't need a dedicated room 4. safeWhat's an advantage of ultrasound?50 yearsHow long has ultrasound technology been used in the medical field?ultrasoundWhich technology is used to monitor a developing fetus?sonogramWhat do you call an image produced from an ultrasound?noAre there any known negative effects of ultrasound technology?computerized tomography (CT)__________: A technique to show a person's hard internal anatomy. Produces images that look like visual "slices."three-dimensional imageThe cross sections of CT scans can be combined to for a _________iodinePatients getting CT scans are often given a solution containing _______ to increase the contrast of the image.1. help doctors decide if surgery is necessary. 2. help diagnose cancer and what treatment is needed. 3. guides the treatment of injuries, cardiac disease, and strokeWhat are the advantages of CT scans?1. It uses x-rays 2. radiation is much higher than x-rays 3. the iodine in the contrast agent can lead to systemic allergic reactions in patients 4. The CT scan is also less suited to creating images of soft tissue than the MRI.What is the disadvantage of CT scans?CT scanWhich technology is a three-dimensional imaging of hard internal anatomy?1. Websites provide information that helps you make decisions about what to buy. 2. The Internet allows you to take an active role in your health care. You can find information about symptoms and treatments for diseases. 3. Sense of community sharing information and experiences 4. Medical records are stored online giving doctors easy access to patient medical historyWhat are the advantages of the internet as a source of medical information?Potentially false or misleading information, especially when it comes to medical information.What is a disadvantage of the internet as a source of medical information?arrhythmia_______: An irregular heartbeat that is too fast or too slow.glucose meter_______: A device that measures blood glucose concentration.heart pacemaker_______: An implanted device used to regulate a patient's heartbeat.implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)_______: An implanted device that administers a strong electrical current. It is used to restart or normalize an erratic heartbeat.insulin pump_______: A pump for diabetics. Delivers insulin to help control blood sugar levels.neurostimulator_______: A device that is planted in the body to send out a mild electrical current to the body's tissue. It is used to mask the feeling of pain, control involuntary movements, or improve hearing.glucose metersDiabetes management has been made easier with electronic __________.artificial materials (artificial joints)It is now relatively common to have arthritic joints replaced with _________.hip, knee, shoulder, and ankleWhich joints are commonly replaced with artificial joints?Implanted devices_________ are used to correct medical conditions. They work inside a patient's body.PacemakerWhat is an example of an implanted device?implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)Pacemakers may be combined with an ___________. These devices deliver a high-energy shock if the heart stops.Neurostimulators__________ are another implanted device. They're used to treat epilepsy, reduce pain, and improve hearing.personal health monitors________: devices or phone applications gather data and interact with software to provide users with a way to track health and fitness.Apple watchWhat is an example of a personal health monitor?REM_______: the stage of sleep when you dream and your eyes make quick movements.1. steps taken 2. calories burned 3. heart rate 4. sleepWhat do personal health monitors track?pandemic________: An outbreak of a disease that happens over a wide geographic area.vaccine_______: A substance that stimulates the immune system in order to prevent a specific illness. It is noninfectious and is used to prevent illnesses like the flu.noWere vaccines available during the 1918 flu pandemic?30 - 50 million peopleHow many people died from the 1918 flu pandemic?1. 1938 2. Jonas Salk 3. Thomas FrancisIn _______, scientists ______ and ______Francis developed the first vaccine to fight flu viruses. This flu vaccine was used to protect American soldiers during World War II.No. Flu viruses change over time. Therefore, a person who suffers from the flu one year will not necessarily be immune to the next year's flu strain. Vaccines are designed to prepare our immune systems for the flu strains that are common in the coming year.Do flu vaccines help protect us against all strains of the flu? ExplainIn the 1930s discovered that live hen's eggs could be used to culture flu viruses. Most flu vaccines, including both flu shots and nasal sprays, are still made this way.How are flu vaccines made?Cell-based culturing uses virus strains that are multiplied in the cell cultures of mammals. After multiplication, the parts of the virus used in the vaccine are purified. This method works faster and is less expensive than using eggs.Discuss new methods of making vaccines.Two studies showed that Internet searches and social media postings predicted flu outbreaks a few weeks before the CDC. Researchers have created a website where volunteers can report on their location and health each week. In the future, these data might be used by public health officials in monitoring flu cases.Discuss how the internet can be a useful tool in predicting a flu outbreak.1. rapid tests (fluid sample from throat causes a reaction on a test strip that changes color). 2. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) uses DNA technologyWhat tests are available to diagnose the flu?Rapid tests are not very reliable. They often produce false negatives and sometimes false positives.What is the disadvantage of a rapid flu test?Fast and reliableWhat are the advantages of the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to diagnose the flu?PCR (polymerase chain reaction)Which diagnostic test uses DNA technology?Antiviral drugsWhat do we have to do to fight against the flu once we have it?natural immune systemHow do most people conquer the flu?Older people, young children, or people with underlying illnessesWho is at most risk of the flu?telemedicine______: The practice of medicine between patients and doctors at a distance.Most specialists are located in large cities and may be far from some patients. Internet technology can address this. One way is with telemedicine, or medicine at a distance. Patients may have a virtual office visit with a specialist through video conferencing.What is the advantage of telemedicine?Remote patient monitoring___________ is a technology to enable monitoring of patients outside of conventional clinical settings, such as in the home or in a remote area, which may increase access to care and decrease healthcare delivery costs.can reduce the number of doctor and hospital visits.What is an advantage of remote patient monitoringHealth insuranceCost is one of the barriers to getting health care. ________ reduces the cost of health care.Affordable Care ActTo improve people's access to affordable insurance, the ___________ created online health insurance exchanges. Through these, people can compare health insurance plans and determine whether they qualify for financial help.endoscopy________: The viewing of internal body structures using small cameras.prediabetes_________: A condition of increased blood glucose levels. This commonly leads to type 2 diabetes.type 2 diabetes_______: A metabolic disorder that often starts later in a person's life. It is characterized by insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. The disease is caused by genetic factors. Lifestyle factors, such as too much body weight, stress, and tobacco use, can cause this disorder.1. CT and MRI 2. endoscopy 3. blood testsHow is cancer detected?PSA test for prostate cancer.What is an example of a blood test that looks for compounds produced from tumors?Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and combinations of these.What is the treatment for cancer?prediabetes_____: a condition of higher-than-normal blood sugar that usually leads to type 2 diabetes.1. measuring blood glucose 2. measures a special form of hemoglobinHow do we test for diabetes?Major advances have been made in diabetes treatment. One is the genetic engineering of human insulin. Researchers put the human insulin gene into bacteria that then produce human insulin. In the past, diabetics had to use insulin taken from animal pancreases. Other innovations include home blood glucose meters, glucose pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring devices.How do we treat diabetes?1. through a patient's description of his or her symptoms. 2. Some tests may be given to rule out other possible causes. 3.How is bipolar disorder diagnosed?1. Research is ongoing to find possible biochemical and genetic markers for bipolar disorder. 2. Researchers are using positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain, which measure brain activity, to search for indicators of bipolar disorder.What are researchers doing in trying to find new ways to diagnose bipolar disorder?Bipolar disorder is treated with different drugs. These drugs work based on their ability to modify mood and behavior.How is bipolar disorder treated?Bipolar disorder________: a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs and lows..1. through an assessment of a patient's symptoms. 2. Other tests, such as blood tests and CT or MRI scans, may be performedHow is schizophrenia diagnosed?Schizophrenia________: a chronic brain disorder with symptoms that include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, trouble with thinking and lack of motivation.taking antipsychotic drugsHow is Schizophrenia treated?side effects, which sometimes cause patients to stop taking themWhat is the drawback of antipsychotic drugs?