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AP US History Unit 2
Boston Tea Party
Response to Tea Act, Boston radicals dressed up as Indians boarded a British ship and threw off 342 chests of tea.
First Continental Congress
Held at Carpenters Hall, all colonies except Georgia, more concerned with non exportation because then Britain couldn't pay off it's debt.
Governor of Massachussets, led the invasion of Lexington and Concord.
Settlers in the Carolinas made themselves Regulators, regulated back country for their was no government.
Second Continental Congress
Inherited Revolutionary war, appointed Washington general of Continental Army, didn't tax, didn't regulate trade, thought of itself as executive.
George Grenville's war against smuggling
Created Sugar Act, allowed the seizure of ships, made it more profitable for officers to hound ships rather than take bribes.
Proclamation of 1763
Drew line across Application water shed, settlers would have to purchase land from Indians across this line.
New England Restraining Act
Colonies couldn't use fisheries in the Atlantic, only could trade with Britain.
Boston Massacre Trials and Gaspee Affair
Impossible to prosecute individuals for politically motivated crime, need to send army to enforce laws.
After 11 year old killed, crowd through stones at customs house, 5 killed, 6 wounded, Thomas Preston
Questioned King's integritry, Charles Pratt freed him, made 45 a symbol of Liberty.
Townshend Revenue Act
Put duties on imports from Britain, new revenues would be used to pay salaries of governors in colonies.
Wrote the five resolutions to the Stamp Act, member of House of Burgesses.
War in Saluda Creek with Moderators, war in Alamance Creek with Tyrons Army
Four Coercive Acts
Boston Port Act, The Quartering Act, Justice Act, Massachusetts Act
Declaration of the Causes and Necesssities of Taking Up Arms
Written by Jefferson, justified armed resistance to reunite Britain and Colonies, king ignored it
Published by Paine, published in Philladelphia, accused King George III a brute, Americas unite as republic.
Imposed by Grenville, 3 pence duty on mollases from Britain.
Declaration of Independence
Written on July 4 1776 by Jefferson, Adams, and Franklin.
The Coercive Acts
Response to Boston Tea Party, led to creation of First Continental Congress and non-importation.
Letters from A Farmer in Pennsylvania
Response to Townshend Act, parliament wasn't distinguishing external taxes from internal ones.
Lt. Governor Thomas Hutchinson
Mansion was ram sacked and removed troops from Boston.
Three Succesive Crises
Stamp Act, Townshend Act, and Tea Act.
Sons of Liberty
Evil, tarred and feathered people, demolished Stamp Act Offices.
Montgomery and Arnold
Sent to recruit Canadians, Montogomory sent to Montreal, both defeated and became American heroes.
Named after Otowa Cheif, captured Fort Detroit and Pitt, Amherst spread small pox blankets.
Met at Concord, became government of Massachusetts, created minute-men, changed payment of taxes to go to them.
Value of Continental Money
Dollar worth less than a penny in 1779, took out foreign loans.
Men Volunteered for Longer Terms
Served for three years, formed continental line, made training possible.
Native American allegiance Revolutionary War
Joined Britain, wouldn't kill other Indians.
Army veteran who ordered attack on Arsenal in Sprinfield,
Consitution was to go into effect
As soon as 9 states accepted hoping the other 3 would follow suit.
Compromise of Virginia and New Jersey plan,
John Adams/Division of Government
Wrote about 3 branches in his "Thoughts about Government"
Washington Established New Policies
Stricter disipline, soldier now could receive 100 lashes, gave cash and land bonuses.
Who reopened Atlantic Slave Trade?
South Carolina and Georgia to import 600,000, needed labor to cope with lost crop during war.
Most slaves sided with?
Cut wilderness trail from Cumberland Gap to Kentucky
Treaty of Paris
Ended war, gave Indian land to US
Continental Soldiers grew discontented
Winter of 1779-80 almost send 2 regiments of army home because were not fed for 3 day, result of diminishing dollar value.
Randolph's Virginia Plan
Bicameral legislature, proportional representation, drafted by James Madison
Last minute objection to Bill of Rights, drafted declaration of rights that carfully excluding slaves.
Kept supplies flowing from France.
Commited to English ideas of Liberty, 1/6 of America.
Written by Hamilton, large republic much more succesful than smaller one.
Divided Northwest into townships 6 square miles, divided into 36 sections, dollar an acre
Provide government, split into 3-5 states, and once they reached 60,000 they could petition to become a state.
Indians Willing to Fight on American Side
Catawabas, Oniedas, Shawnees, Moravian
Openly rejected Stamp Act and other Acts, moved to Canada.
Outnumbered Burgoise 3 to 1, made Burgoise retreat to Saratoga, lost in Carolina to Cornwallis.
Washington recieved help from other European volunteers
Van Stuben was a prussian, Lafouyette and Johahn were French, 1/5 colonial officers from Europe.
British reevaluated military strategy
Declared war on France, deployed army on a global scale, pulled Clinton out of Philadelphia.
Principle crop of coastal South Carolina and Georgia
Widely distributed publications in early Republic
Cotton requires all the following growing conditions
Hot humid climate, long growing season, lots of labor.
Five Civilized Tribes
Occupied ancesteral land, Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles.
Rice and cotton plantations in South Carolina and Georgia
Slaves made up 80% of this region, demanded skilled labor
Statements concerning American society during the early Republic?
Old farming communities grew older and more females. Frontier settlements and seaport cities became more younger and male. Young men who stayed home had little to look forward to.
Under Treaty of Greenville
Native Americans give up 2/3 of land in Ohio and Indiana, British abandon forts in the Old Northwest.
Southern Evangelical Faiths
Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, grew greatly, became dominant church in the South.
Commercial boom in sea port cities
Merchants industrialized US, poverty became common, accountants arose to keep track of financial transactions.
Growth of Maritime Economy
More overseas demand for American goods, Artisans replaced by wage labor, French seizures of American Ships led to entering the war of 1812.
Farmers kept tract of what they owed each other and payed difference at end of year.
Implementing task system in South Carolina and Georgia
Summer led to deadly diseases preventing plantation owner from watching slaves, gave slaves 5 acres of land.
Blacks drawn to revival religion for many of the same reasons as whites.
Evangelical because of emotional preaching, jerking.
Slaves marched to Richmund to set fire to warehouse and take capital square. Heavy rain ruined their plan.
Women's labor and ingenuity on farms
Created more varied and nutritious diet.
Republican Concept of Citizenship
Land owning, tax paying, independent fathers.
Relegated to smaller territory, but still dependent upon the European fur trade, the natvies of the Northwest and Southwest
Compete with settlers for game, settlers scared away animals,
Money to increase the family income, Working class women
Women did laundry, pedaled food, domestic servant, taking in boarders.
Key to international commerce in economy of early America
Sea Port Cities such as Boston, New York, Charlestown, Baltimore, Philadelphia.