How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

140 terms

NCCT Phlebotomy Test Review

NCCT Phlebotomy Test Review
STUDY
PLAY
The forearm vein most commonly used for venipuncture
Median cubital
The smallest veins in the human body are known as
Venules
The aorta branches into smaller divisions called arteries, which in turn branch into even smaller divisions called
Arterioles
Characteristics of capillaries include
(1) Having thin walls
(2) Forming microscopic pathways
(3) Connecting arterioles with venules
Within the capillaries, blood cell functions include
(1) Releasing oxygen
(2) Binding carbon dioxide
(3) Eliminating waste
The heart, lymphatic organs, & blood vessels are in which system
Cardiovascular system
Suffix -URIA at the end of a medical term refers what body location
Urine
Study of blood
Hematology
The liver, stomach, mouth, & pancreas are in which system
Digestive system
The most important step to ensure accuracy in sample collection is
Identifying the pt properly
The bladder, urethra, kidneys, & ureters are in which system
Urinary system
The trachea, nose, lungs, & pharynx are in which system
Respiratory system
The sebaceous glands, skin hair & nails are in which system
Integumentary system
The body system that is a primary regulator hormones is which system
Endocrine system
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes & monocytes are type of
White blood cells (WBC)
Common name for the thrombocyte is the
Platelet
Liquid portion of an anticoagulated blood sample is known as
Plasma
Instrument that measures blood pressure
Sphygmomanometer
Artery can be distinguished from a vein because an artery will be
Pulsating
Lancets are used to collect blood samples by
Capillary or skin puncture
VAD is commonly used in hospitals to refer to
Venous Access Devices
To determine the size of the needle, remember that the higher the gauge, the
Smaller the needle bore
Adult capillary punctures most often involve use of which finger(s)
3rd & 4th (middle & ring) fingers
Centrifuge is used in a clinical laboratory setting to
Separate liquid from cells in blood
Oral gulcose tolerance test is used for detection of
Diabetes
Evacuated tube top for collection of CBC test is which color
Lavender
Evacuated tube top for collection of blood for electrolyte test is which color
Red
Evacuated tube top for collection of blood for cholesterol test is which color
Red
Sodium citrate is an anticoagulant of choice for coagulation studies because it protects
Clotting factors. Calcium
When preparing a blood smear directly from a skin puncture it is best to
Wipe away the first drop of blood
The Order of Draw
(1) Blood culture tube (YELLOW)
(2) Coagulation tube (BLUE)
(3) Serum tubes (RED) w/ or w/o clot activator or gel
(4) Heparin tube w/ or w/o gel plasma separator (GREEN)
(5) EDTA (LAVENDER)
(6) Glycolytic inhibitor (GRAY)
10 phlebotomy steps in order
(1) Greet & identify the pt
(2) Explain the procedure to the pt
(3) Assemble the equipment
(4) Cleanse the venipuncture site
(5) Anchor the vein
(6) Insert the needle
(7) Collect blood in vacuum tube
(8) Remove tourniquet
(9) Dispose of needle
(10) Label tubes
Purpose of doing blood cultures is to detect
Septicemia
Anticoagulants are used to
Prevent the blood from clotting
WBC help the body by
Defending against foreign invaders
Platelets help the circulation by
Participating in hemostasis
When the blood seeps into the surronding tissue during a venipuncture a _____ may form
Hematoma
In a pt with a clotting disorder, pressure should be applied to the puncture site for at least ____ after venipuncture to insure blood stoppage
5 minutes
Skin puncture may be indicated for use when
(1) pt is an infant, toddler, or preschooler
(2) Only a small amount of blood is needed
(3) pt veins need to be preserved for IV therapy
All specimens should be labeled with
(1) pt name (& numeric ID)
(2) Date & time the specimen was drawn
(3) Collector's initials
When performing a skin puncture, squeezing the finger too tightly may dilute the blood with ___ & ruin the test
Tissue fluid
1 test often used to assess hemostasis before surgery is
Bleeding time
1 possible cause of unexpected clotting in an anticoagulated blood tube might be
Insufficient mixing
When performing a venipuncture, position the bevel of the needle
Facing up
If blood does not appear in an evacuated tube upon venipuncture, a phlebotomist's 1st course of action should be to
Slightly reposition the needle
Redirecting a needle during venipuncture is sometimes necessary when
(1) Vein was not properly anchored
(2) pt moves unexpectedly
(3) Blood flow starts, & then stops
Vein might be prone to collapse if the
(1) Vacuum tube is too large for vein
(2) Syringe plunger was pulled back too quickly
Hemolysis would cause rejection of a sample collected for ____ testing
Potassium
If a pt is prone to syncope during venipuncture, the phlebotomist should
Watch in case of fainting
Tube of blood that arrives in the lab without a label must be
Rejected automatically
If a blood sample should be collected 2 hrs post-prandial, the phlebotomist should collect the sample
2 hours after a meal. Means after mealtime. Prandial: Of or relating to a meal.
Knowing when to collect peak & trough levels is important when drawing
Therapeutic drugs
Pre-warming technique may be used to
Increase pt tendency to bleed
Role of all anticoagulants is ultimately to prevent formation of
Fibrin (Protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot.)
Anticoagulant EDTA works by
Binding calcium
If the tourniquet is not released before the needle is withdrawn from the arm during venipuncture, this will most likely result in
Bleeding from the site
Test sample that is light sensitive
Bilirubin
The ____must be followed exactly whenever drawing pt test samples that may be used in a legal proceeding
Chain of custody
Anticoagulant SPS (Sodium Polyanetholesulfonate) is recommended for use in blood cultures because it
Does not inhibit bacterial growth
Before entering an inpatient room if the door is closed, the phlebotomist should always
(1) Knock
(2) Ask permission to enter
(3) Check for isolation signage
Before entering designated isolation rooms, phlebotomists should always
Check for requirements on signs
Single most important means of preventing the spread of infection in a hospital is by
Hand washing
Most prevalent type of nosocomial infections(An infection acquired in a hospital.) are those of the
Urinary tract
Phlebotomists have a statistically greater chance of contracting _____in a work-related incident than they do of contracting AIDS
Hepatitis
AIDS is caused by
HIV virus
When performing heelsticks on infants in a hospital nursery, it is important never to
Share supplies from one infant to another
When delivering blood samples to a lab, they should always be transported
Inside sealed plastic bags
If a biohazard spills in the lab, a phlebotomist should first try to
Contain the spill safely
According to OSHA, a contaminate needle may be safely discarded into a
Sharps container
In most hospitals, a phlebotomist with a cough may draw blood from a pt provided the
(1) pt is not in reverse isolation
(2) Phlebotomist wears a mask
(3) Phlebotomist does not have a fever
When drawing blood from pediatric inpatients, a phlebotomist can increase safety for the pt by
(1) Getting help to hold the pt securely during the draw
(2) Using a smaller bore needle & smaller collection tubes
(3) Making sure the bedrails are left raised if found that way
To eliminate bacteria from the skin of a bacterial culture venipuncture site,____ is sometimes used in addition to alcohol in the skin cleansing process
Iodine
Term that refers to right & wrong conduct is
Ethics
Unlawful threat or attempt to do bodily injury to another
Assult
Law protects the health worker if it can be determined that he or she acted reasonably as compared with fellow workers; this is called
Reasonable care
Negligence by a professional person is called
Malpractice
Ability to see things from another person's point of view is
Empathy
Violation of a person's right not to have his or her name, photograph, or private affairs made public without giving consent is
Invasion of privacy
Info given by a pt to medical personnel that cannot be disclosed without consent constitutes
Privileged communication
Failure to do something a reasonable person would do under ordinary circumstances, or doing something a reasonable person would not do under ordinary circumstances thereby causing harm to another person is called
Negligence
Permission granted by a person voluntarily (and in his right mind) is
Consent
Phlebotomist who attempts to draw blood without sufficient training could be accused of ____if the procedure is performed incorrectly, causing harm to the pt
Incompetence
Forcing venipuncture on a pt who has refused it would be considered
Battery
Branch of study of moral issues, questions, & problems arising in the practice of medicine & biomedical research is called
Bioethics
Conduct, courtesy, & manners, customary in the medical profession, is called
Medical etiquette
Each & every pt is entitled to____as part of his/her pt rights
Respect & complete care
Some suggested methods for controlling on the job stress during phlebotomy might include
Taking deep breaths
Means of communicating with a pt who is hearing impaired
Using written communication
Performing phlebotomy on children, it is best to
(1) Talk softly & gently
(2) Enlist the help of parents
(3) Tell the truth if asked
Elderly pt it's appropriate to call the pt by name using
Miss, Mrs., or Mr.
Pt who is making a fist & frowning is exhibiting
Uncooperative body language
Rubber or plastic tube used to drain or inject fluid through a body opening is called
Catheter
24-hr. Urine specimen must be kept
Refrigerated
Chronic disease in which the pancreas fails to secrete enough insulin
Diabetes mellitus
Purpose of the bleeding time test is to assess
Platelet plug formation in the capillaries
Diurnal rhythms refer to variations in the body's functions or fluids that occur during
Every 24 hours
EMLA is an emulsion of Lidocaine & Prilocaine that can be used to
Topically anesthetize a draw site
Another name for red blood cells (RBC)
Erythrocytes
Artery located in the groin, lateral to the femur bone, which is used as an alternative site for arterial blood gas collections
Femoral artery
Federal law that was expanded in 2000 to protect the confidentiality of electronically stored health info
HIPAA
Study of all aspects of disease in the body
Pathology
Phase of laboratory testing that refers to test orders, test collection & test sample preparation are all part of this phase
Pre-analytical phase
Pt in reverse isolation has been so placed because he/she
Needs protection from others carrying infection
EDTA
Anticoagulant in Lavender top tubes
NaCitrate
Anticoagulant in Blue top tubes
ABG
Arterial Blood Gases
FUO
Fever of unknown origin
STD
Sexually transmitted disease
H&H
Hemoglobin & Hematocrit
CBC
Complete blood count
Electrolytes
Red Top or Speckled Tube
QC
Quality Control
CDC
Center for Disease Control
Contaminated objects that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, & exposed ends of dental wires
Contaminated sharps
Reasonable possibility of skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's regular duties
Occupational exposure
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
(1) Gloves
(2) Masks
(3) Aprons
Not considered this is a uniform.
Physical-chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life including highly resistant bacterial endospores is
Sterilize
Single most important source of HIV & HBV in the workplace
Blood
OSHA requires that training & educational info on bloodborne pathogens be provided to hospital or clinical employees
At no cost to them
All workers whose jobs involve participation in tasks or activities with exposure to blood or other body fluids, to which universal precautions apply, should be vaccinated with a
Hepatitis B
After they used, disposable syringes & needles, scalpel blades & other sharp items, should be placed in
Puncture-resistant containers for disposal
Broken glassware that may be contaminated should be picked up by
Mechanical means (broom/dustpan)
Contaminated laundry should be
Bagged or containerized at the location where is was soiled
Specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employees duties is
Exposure incident
Health care field when all evaluated services & the results compare with accepted standards, principles of
Quality assurance have been used
Federal gov. requires that specimens are transported or shipped in
Watertight containers
Classification the physician's office lab (POL) falls into will be determined by
Complexity of laboratory tests performed
Tests that basically pose insignificant risks to pt if errors occur in the test performance
Waived tests
When you send blood tubes by mail for analysis in a watertight container, they should be enclosed in
2nd durable watertight container
When you send specimens in the mail, the label should state
(1) Biohazardous materials
(2) In case of breakage, send to CDC
(3) Address of lab
Supplies for venipuncture
(1) Evacuated collection tubes
(2) Needles
(3) Holder/Adapter
(4) Tourniquet
(5) Alcohol Wipes- 70% Isopropyl Alcohol
(6) Povidone-iodine wipes/swabs- Used if blood culture is to be drawn
(7) Gauze sponges- for application on the site from which the needle is withdrawn
(8) Adhesive bandages/tape
(9) Sharps container
(10) Gloves
(11) Syringes- for special circumstances
Infant heel sticks lancet size
Smaller than 2.5mm
Common heatology tests
CBC hgb, hct, Differential, sickle screen, Sed rate, platelet counts
Light blue top chemical & tests
Sodium Citrate
Coagulation studies, PT, PTT
Allergy to Iodine (shellfish) what antiseptic is used?
Chlorahexadine
Allergy to alcohol what antiseptic is used?
Betadine
Person has a IV on arm what arm do u draw on?
Below the IV or other arm.
Smallest blood vessels
Capillaries
Heparin blocks what during a clot formation
Thrombin
Bleach solutions dilution ratio
1:10