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160 terms

Earth Science Final

Final Test Yeah!
STUDY
PLAY
Why is water regarded an essence of life?
Water is needed soil, vegetation, plant growth, food, drinking, washing, rain. Without water, we die.
1a) What name is given to the mechanism responsible for transferring water from the vast oceans to land?
Hydrologic Cycle.
1a) Hydrologic Cycle
Unending circulation of water from the ocean to the atmosphere and back to the earth's surface.
1a) Evaporation
water is converted to gas or vapor Condensation
1a) Condensation -
gas or vapor is converted to liquid or solid
1a) Precipitation -
the release of water or ice from the sky
1b) Define weather
Weather - state of the atmosphere at a given place and time.
1b) Define climate
Climate - average weather condition over a long period of time
Identify the four major elements of weather and climate.
Elements - temperature, moisture, wind and pressure
1c) Comment [List] the controls of climate and how they influence climates.
Solar Energy
Latitude
Altitude
Topographic Barriers
Land-water Contrast - Continentality
Atmospheric Circulation
Ocean Currents
Rotation of the earth
Human Activities
Storms
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - LATITUDE
The further away from the equator, the colder the climate becomes.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - ALTITUDE
The higher one goes up in the air, the colder the climate becomes.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - TOPOGRAPHIC BARRIERS
Wet climate.
Dry Climate.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - LAND-WATER CONTRAST - CONTINENTALITY
Large water bodies.
The more interior into the land, the more severe the weather [exa. Montgomery is warmer than Mobile due to the large water body - Gulf of Mexico]
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION
Air, Water. Warm air brings in warmer temps to warm. Cold air brings in colder temps to cold.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - OCEAN CURRENTS
Air, Water. Warm air brings in warmer temps to warm. Cold air brings in colder temps to cold..
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - ROTATION OF THE EARTH
Air, Water. Warm air brings in warmer temps to warm. Cold air brings in colder temps to cold.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Body heat, cars, buildings, industries creates influences on climate. Micro-climate [climate w/n climate].
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - STORMS
Storms can temporarily change the condition of weather.
1c) Comment on the controls of climate and how they influence climates. - SOLAR ENERGY
The higher the insolation, the lower the solar energy. Likewise, the lower the insolation, the higher the solar energy.
1d) Name the first 4 thermal layers of the atmosphere:
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.
Ozone layer: mainly in the Stratosphere, but also in the lower mesosphere and upper troposphere
1d) Where is the Ozone Layer located?
Ozone layer: mainly in the Stratosphere, but also in the lower mesosphere and upper troposphere
1e) Which of the layers [Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere] is responsible for all the weather activities?
Troposphere
1f) What three weather elements decrease with height in the first layer of the atmosphere?
Temperature, Moisture, and Pressure
2.a) What is insolation?
Solar energy in the form electromagnetic waves reaching the earth's surface and its atmosphere.
2.a) What are the two agents of heat transfer in an attempt to balance the unbalanced distribution of the solar energy?
WIND [Atmospheric circulation] and WATER [Ocean currents]
2b) With the aid of a diagram show the six zones of insolation and give their approximate boundaries (either by names or numbers).
SEE Notes - pg 18. Six zones are: 1. North polar zone. 2. N. Temperate zone / N. Midlatitude zone. 3 - North Tropical zone. 4. South Tropic Zone. 5 - S. Temperate Zone / S. Mid latitude zone. 6. South Polar zone.
2c) What are the causes of variations in insolation?
1. Angles of the sun's rays
2. Duration of daylight - length of the day
3. Atmospheric obstruction - cloud cover
2d) What is the relationship between insolation and temperature?
Insolation is the energy from the sun. Temperature is a measure of that sun energy received at the
surface.
2d) What effect does [insolation and temperature] these two related phenomena have on the distribution of human population on the globe?
Insolation dictates temperature as to how hot or cold a body is.
2e) What are the three generalizations made about insolation?
1. Insolation decreases from lower latitude to higher latitude
2. Annual insolation at the top of the atmosphere is constant from year to year at a given latitude
3. Insolation varies more at the higher latitude than at the lower latitude.
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: i) 10-12-2007
date the weather reading was taken
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: ii) 58° F, 77° F
low and high temperatures of the day
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: iii) N 8 mph -
wind speed and direction
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: iv) 1.7 inches
amount of precipitation already fallen
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: v) 29.95 inches and rising -
barometric pressure reading that is rising vi) 70 percent - humidity
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: vii) 85 percent chance -
possibility that it might rain
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: viii) 60° F -
Critical temperature air is Saturated - dew point temp,
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: ix) 30.30 inches and falling -
barometric reading that is falling
3a) Interpret or identify the following figures in weather terms: x) 25°C -
current temperature in Celsius
3b) What is the temperature in Fahrenheit if the Celsius reads 20°? F = 9/5 C + 32
68 F.
3c) What is the temperature in Celsius, if the Fahrenheit reads 77°? C = 5/9 (F - 32)
28 C.
3d) What is the above reading in Kelvin? K = C + 273
298 k.
3e) What is the temperature in Celsius, if the Fahrenheit reads -40°?
-40c.
4a) With the aid of a "good-looking" diagram show the limits of the sun's direct rays. Do not forget to show the seven main latitudes.
See Notes pg. 17. The 7 main latitudes are: 1 - North Pole. 2. Arctic Circle. 3. Tropic of Cancer. 4. Equator. 5 - Tropic of Capricorn. 6 - Antarctic Circle. 7 - South Pole
4b) What causes the seasons?
Caused by the rotation of the earth, the revolution of the earth around the sun and the inclination of the earth's axis.
4c) Give the four seasons (give the technical names if possible) of the Southern and Northern Hemisphere with their approximate
starting dates.
Notes pg. 17. The 4 seasons are: 1-Summer Solstice beginning June 21 or 22. 2-Fall Equinox beginning Sept. 22 or 23. 3-Winter Solstice beginning Dec. 21 or 22. 4-Spring Equinox beginning Mar 20 or 21.
4d) Name the four oceans of the World:
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic
5a) What is evaporation?
A process in which water is converted from liquid to water vapor. It is a coohng process in which energy is
taken from the surface and is stored in the vapor as latent heat of vaporization.
5b) What is condensation?
It is the process in which water vapor is converted from gas to liquid or solid (ice). It is warming or heating
process because energy is released to the surrounding air as latent heat of condensation. Forms of condensation: Cloud, fog, dew, frost,
smog.
Name the forms of Condensation:
Cloud, fog, dew, frost, and smog
5c) What are condensation nuclei and what are their function?
Tiny microscopic dust particles in the air upon which condensation takes place.
5d) What is Dew point?
The critical temperature at which air becomes saturated with water vapor.
5e) What is Saturation?
It is the point at which the air cannot hold more water vapor.
6a) What is precipitation?
The release of moisture in the form of rain, snow, sleet, glaze and hail by the atmosphere
Identify four forms of precipitation.
rain, snow, sleet, glaze and hail
6b) Identify the four different types of precipitation.
1. convectional precipitation -
2. orographic precipitation -
3. cyclonic/frontal precipitation -
4. convergent precipitation -
6c) What is atmospheric pressure?
The force exerted by the collision of million of atmospheric molecules. The weight of the atmosphere on the earth's surface. This force is omni-directional.
6d) With the aid of a diagram identify the seven pressure belts of the world and their associated wind systems.
See Tablet notes. Seven pressure belts of the world & their associated wind systems are:
Polar High - Belt Polar Easterlies - Wind Sys
Subpolar Low-Belt Prevailing Westerlies - Wind Sys
SubTropical High-Belt NorthE.Tradewinds - Wind Sys
Equational Low - Belt SouthE Tradewinds - Wind Sys
SubTropical High-Belt Prevailing Westerlies -Wind Sys
Subpolar Low - Belt Polar Easterlies-WindSys
Polar High Belt
6e) What are Cyclones?
Bad Weather.
6d) What are Anticyclones?
Good Weather.
7a) What is an air mass?
A larger body of air that moves over the earth's surface as separate body.
7a. Characteristics of an air mass include:
1. A large body of air is involved.
2. It must acquire some uniform properties in its horizontal dimension - temperature, stability and humidity.
3. It must appear and travel as separate and distinct entity.
7b. Identify the air masses that come to the United States.
1. Arctic (A) - very cold, very dry, very stable
2. Continental Polar (cP) - cold, dry and stable
3. Maritime Polar (mP) - cool, moist, unstable
4. Continental Tropical (cT) - warm or hot, dry and
stable
5. Maritime Tropical (mT) - warm, humid, variable
instability
6. Equatorial (E) - very warm, very humid, very unstable.
c) What is a front?
The region of discontinuity where two unlike air mass meet.
Name the Four Types of fronts:
Cold, warm, stationary, and occluded.
8a) What are five atmospheric disturbances (storms); and you may tell us where each one most likely occur?
1. Tornadoes - mid-latitude flat land, especially in the
United States
2. Hurricane - tropical to subtropical oceans and seas
3. Thunderstorms - any warm environment, tropical,
subtropical and mid-latitude
4. Polar Outbreak - originate from polar regions
5. Easterly Waves - originate from tropical to
subtropical deserts
8b) What is a tornado?
A Cyclonic storm of very low pressure associated with very high winds and wind speed of between 200 and 500
miles per hour, that causes more damage with her winds. Tornadoes takes everything in its path.
8c) What is a hurricane?
A cyclonic storm of very low pressure associated with very high winds and wind speed of between 75 and 250
miles per hour, that causes damage with his winds, flooding and waves.
8c) What three conditions are necessary for development of a hurricane?
Latent heat of condensation; latitudes 7-15 north or south of the equator; rotation of the earth; warm ocean water about 80°F; warm air temperature about 80°F; etc.
8c) What two conditions are necessary for a hurricane's dissipation?
Land, cold water, or cold air encounter will dissipate hurricanes.
8c) What precaution can be taken by people in the region of hurricanes?
Move inland.
8d) Name three main types of cloud:
cirrus, cumulus, and stratus
8d) Describe the cloud type associated with precipitation:
nimbus cloud
8e) What are the three states water is known to have appeared?
liquid, solid and gas
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
Climatic Region: WET TROPICAL
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: TROPICAL SAVANNA GRASSLAND
Climatic Region: WET AND DRY TROPICAL
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: PRAIRIE GRASSLANDS
Climatic Region: HUMID CONTINENTAL
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: CONIFEROUS FOREST
Climatic Region: MARINE WEST COAST
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: NEEDLE-LEAF EVERGREEN FOREST
Climatic Region: HUMID CONTINENTAL
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: STEPPE VEGETATION
Climatic Region: SEMIARID
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: TUNDRA
Climatic Region: SUBPOLAR CLIMATE
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: OLIVE, GRAPES
Climatic Region: MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: ICE CAP
Climatic Region: POLAR CLIMATE
9a) Match the following biomes [Vegetation] with the climatic regions: DESERT SHRUB AND CACTUS
Climatic Region: ARID CLIMATE
Wladimir Koppen's Classification is...: Modified Koppen's classification is used in geography.
based on temperature and moisture. Koppen put into consideration the effects of these two [temperature & mositure] on natural vegetation.
What criteria or attributes did The Koppen classification meet to make it the most viable climatic classification system used?
1) They are relatively simple to comprehend and to
use.
2) They show some sort of orderly pattern over the
earth.
3) They give some indication of genesis [reasons
underlying development].
What 5 groups of climates that are of interest to us based on The Koppen Classification System?
1. A-Group - Tropical Humid Climates;
i. Tropical Rainforest Climate or Tropical Wet
Climate.
ii. Tropical Monsonnal Climate
iii. Tropical Savanna Climate or Tropical Wet and
Dry Climate;
2. B-Group - Arid or Dry Climates;
i. Semi-Arid Climate, Steppe or Sahel Climate.
ii. Desert Climate;
3. C-Group - Mild Mid-Latitude Climates;
i. Mediterranean Climate.
ii. Humid Subtropical Climate
iii. Marine West Coast Climate or Temperate Marine
Climate;
4. D-Group - Severe Mid-latitude Climates;
i. Humid Continental Climate.
ii. Subarctic Climate;
5. E-Group - Polar Climates;
i. Subpolar Climate or Tundra Climate.
ii. Polar Ice Cap Climate
Describe A-Group - Tropical Humid Climates.
- Near the equator of the continents are found these high temperatures year-round environments. At noon the sun would never be far from the zenith, and would be directly overhead twice a year. Humid climates of this type with no winter season are Koppen's tropical (A) climates. Coldest month average 18°C (or 64.4°F) temperature. Warm and humid much of the year, with monotonously high temperatures year-round.
1. Tropical Rainforest Climate or Tropical Wet Climate - warm year round, high average monthly temperatures about 80°F, very low temperature range (between 3°F and 5°F). Rains almost everyday. Average rainfall is 100 inches, with a range of 80 to 400. Every month is visited with at least 2.5 inches of rain. Created the tropical rainforest condition in the Amazon, Congo, Indonesia and islands near the equator.
2. Tropical Monsoonal Climate - similar in practically all respect to tropical rainforest above, except a couple of months receives less than 2.5 inches of rain. The range of temperature may be more than 5°F and up to 10°F Average rainfall may be even more than the one above.
3. Tropical Savanna Climate or Tropical Wet and Dry Climate - This climate has pronounced wet season and dry season. Temperatures are high. Rainfall 25-60 inches a year.
Describe B-Group - Arid or Dry Climates.
1. Semi-Arid Climate, Steppe or Sahel Climate - Transitional between humid and desert climates. Semiarid conditions in subtropical and mid-latitude climates. Conditions similar to desert conditions. Temperature - Hot summers and cold winters. Summers are warm or hot; and winters mild, cool or cold depending where the place is located.
Precipitation - Precipitation is light 10 to 20 inches (25 to 50 cm.) but similar to the nearest humid climate. They are different from desert condition by their higher precipitation.
Vegetation - Grasslands and frees are virtually absent.
Soil - soils are brown chernozem and steppe
Land Use - risky for agriculture but these are the wheat, barley and sorghum areas of the world.
Location - Peripheral to deserts, especially in Argentina, northern Africa (the Sahel) and The Veld of South Africa, Australia, central and southern west Asia and the USSR and western United States (Utah, the Dakotas, Colorado, and Montana etc.). More well developed in the midlatitudes than in the subtropics.
2. Desert Climate - Very hot, evaporation exceeds precipitation on the average throughout the year. Associated with descending, diverging circulation of subtropical high pressure.
Temperature - Very hot. Average temperature over 64.4°F. Night temperatures are low and day time temperatures as high as over 100°F. Low humidity. Precipitation - unreliable rainfall, average precipitation is less than 10 inches a year. Very dry with only desert scrub and cactus.
Location - coastal Chile and Peru, Southwest Africa, Central Australia, Southwest United States, North Africa, Arabia, Iran, Pakistan and western India, Inner Asia, Central Asia and Southern Argentina.
Describe C-Group - Mild Mid-Latitude Climates.
1. Mediterranean Climate - annual precipitation is concentrated in winter, summers being virtually rainless. Mild Winter temperatures and summers vary from hot to warm. Clear skies and abundant sunshine are typical, especially in summer. Average precipitation is slight 15 to 25 inches, the highest being in the pole-ward extreme.
2. Humid Subtropical Climate - located between 20° and 40° N and S latitudes. Located in North America, South America and Asia, and Australia. Relatively abundant summer maxima precipitation, and only short winter dry season. Winter temperatures are generally mild with some cold spells. Hot to warm and humid summers. Temperature ranges from 75° to 80°F in the summer. Range of temperature is 15° to 40°F. High humidity like the tropics in summer.
Precipitation - relatively abundant, most of it in summer. Precipitation ranges from 40 to 60 inches (100 to 150 cm) with a general decrease from east to west i.e. interiorward. Some places receive as little as 30 inches and others receive up to 100 inches.
Vegetation - Mixed forest, some grasslands, pines.
3. Marine West Coast Climate or Temperate Marine Climate - West coast locations, under the year-round
influence of the westerlies, warm ocean currents along some coasts.
Temperature - mild winter, mild summer, and low annual temperature range. Temperature 60° to 70°F (16° to 21 °C in the hot months with cold months averaging between 35° and 45°F (2° to 7°C. Precipitation - this is the wettest region of the middle latitudes. Typical precipitation is between 30 and 50 inches but in higher slope areas reaching 100 to 150 inches. Snow is uncommon in the lowlands but high areas receive the highest snowfalls in the world. Vegetation - Green year-round. Coniferous forest in America and deciduous in Europe.
Location - Coastal Oregon Washington and British Columbia and Southern Alaska. Southern Chile, Interior South Africa, Southeastern Australia, New Zealand and Northwest Europe.
Describe D-Group - Severe Mid-latitude Climates.
1. Humid Continental Climate - Also Called Snow Climate. Warm and Humid summer, moderately severe winters and adequate precipitation (20 to 45 inches) decreasing inland and poleward.
Vegetation - Broad-leaf deciduous and mixed forest, tall grass prairie in some portions. Most productive agricultural region in the world.
Location - Lower middle latitudes (35° to 45°). Located in Eastern and midwestern United States from Atlantic Coast to the 100th meridian, east central Europe, northern China, Manchuria, Northern Korea, and Honshu.
2. Subarctic Climate - Cool summers and long, very severe winters. Summer are fairly warm and pleasant, but very short. The growing season is very short with possibility of frost in every month.
Precipitation - Small amount of precipitation but adequate for vegetation. Precipitation between 20 and 30 inches.
Vegetation - Coniferous forest, called taiga, with small pine trees and larch, black spruce, and white birch. Location - located higher midlatitudes 50° to 70°);
northern North America from Newfoundland to Alaska, northern Eurasia from Scandinavia to most of Siberia Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk.
Describe E-Group - Polar Climates.
1. Subpolar Climate or Tundra Climate - Cold desert of the world. Cold all year round. TEMPERATURE - Average temperature of warmest month is 32° to 50°F. Summer-less at least 9 months of average below freezing. PRECIPITATON - Exceeds potential evaporation. 10 inches of precipitation;
Vegetation - mosses, lichens and sedges;
Soils - tundra soil, permafrost;
Location - Arctic Ocean borderlands of North America, Greenland and Eurasia Antarctic Peninsula, some polar islands.
2. Polar Ice Cap Climate - located in high latitudes and interiors of landmasses. Year-round influence of
anticyclone, ice cover. Summer-less. All months below freezing; world's coldest temperature; permanently frozen.
Temperature - Average temperature for the warmest month below 32°.
Precipitation - precipitation exceeds potential evaporation, but extremely meager precipitation. No vegetation; no soils
Land use - not much, scientific exploration.
Location - Antarctica, Interior Greenland, Arctic Ocean and associated islands.
Describe HIGHLAND Climate (H).
Very changeable, from hour to hour and place to place. Tropical and mid-latitudes highlands. Climate chages with elevation substantially. There is technically no one highland climate, but the following general rules apply.
1) In tropical or low latitudes highlands are apt to have an improved climate.
2) In middle and upper latitudes, the highlands are apt to have a worse or more difficult climate, in terms of man's occupance.
3) In dry areas, highlands are apt to have a more humid climate than the surrounding lowlands.
4) There is usually a complex arrangement of climate types and sub-types in highland areas, depending on elevation, slope exposure, prevailing winds, etc. Changeability is perhaps the most conspicuous single characteristic of highland climate.
5) Climates of highlands usually are closely related to those of the adjacent lowland regions, particularly with regard to seasonally of precipitation. But there are exception to this rule.
6) Latitude is of very little importance in controlling highland climate, altitude is the controlling factor.
Describe MICROCLIMATE.
Within any climatic region it is possible to find many small local variations in which the atmospheric elements differ significantly. Some of these variation are caused by local landform configurations or human-related changes in the environment. These local wind patterns can affect the weather of aparticular locale consistently enough so that a microclimate develops. Thus land on the coast will have a different micro-climate from land 20 miles inland. An industrialized city will alter the climate of the city to be more different than areas far removed from the city. One kind of micro-climate is that associated with big cities. Urban centers tend to be warmer than the outlying rural areas and are sometimes referred to as heat island.
Weather and Climate Exercise 1
1a) What is atmosphere?
The gases that covers the earth.
1a) What is the extent of the Atmosphere?
It goes from 0 degrees to 6000 miles. Earth is a planet that caries its own atmosphere.
1b) What are some benefits of the atmosphere to living things?
--Protects us from harmful -- rays from the sun
--Keeps us warm and cool
--Regulates the amount of moisture in the air and serves as a natrual humidifies.
1c) Identify the permanent gases, variable gases, and the aerosols that make up the atmosphere.
Permanent gases: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, & Carbon Dioxide.
Variable gases: water vapor, dust particles and ozone
Aerosols: Sea salts from breaking waves; fine soil blown into the air; smoke and soot from fires; pollen and microrganisma lifted by wind, ash and dust from volcanic eruptions.
1d) Identify the three most prominent gases in the atmosphere.
Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon.
1e) What is the role of the ozone gas in the atmosphere?
The role of the ozone gas in the atmosphere is to absorb potentially harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun.
1f) With the aid of a diagram identify the first four thermal layers of the atmosphere. Identify the boundaries of the ozone layer and its significance.
See Tablet labeled Layers of Atmosphere.
1g) Which of the layers above is responsible for all the weather activities?
The Troposphere.
1h) Identify the following atmospheric terms: HOMOSPHERE
The lower layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists from ground level to roughly 80 kilometers (50 miles) above sea level. Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere
1h) Identify the following atmospheric terms: HETEROSPHERE
The upper layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists higher than roughly 80 kilometers (50 miles) above sea level. Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Exosphere, Van Allen Belt
1h) Identify the following atmospheric terms: IONOSPHERE
A complex zone of ionized gases that coincides with the lower portion of the thermosphere.
1h) What three weather elements decrease with height in the first layer of the atmosphere?
Temperature, Moisture, and Pressure.
2a) The sun has a profound relationship with the earth. With the aid of a diagram show the limit of the sun's direct rays, noting the seven major latitudes.
SEE PAGE 17

The seven major latitudes are 1. North Pole; 2. Arctic Circle; 3. Tropic of Cancer; 4. Equator; 5. Tropic of Capricorn; 6. Antarctic Circle; 7. South Pole
2b) What is insolation?
Insolation is solar energy reaching the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. This energy comes to us in the form of electromagnetic waves / short wave Radiation.
2b) With the aid of a good-looking diagram show the six zones of insolation and give their approximate boundaries. Give the characteristics of each of these zones in the Northern Hemisphere. In this same diagram, also, show the limit of the sun's direct rays.
SEE PAGE 18

The six zones of Insolation are 1. North Temperate Zone; 2. North Mid-latitude Zone; 3. North Tropical Zone; 4. South Tropic Zone; 5. South Temperate Zone; 6. South Mid-latitude Zone.
2c) What is the relationship between insolation (solar energy) and temperature?
Insolation is solar energy reaching the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. This energy comes to us in the form of electromagnetic waves/short wave radiation.
AND..
Temperature is the measure of energy that determines how hot or cold the body is.
2c ) What effect do these two related phenomena [insolation & temperature] have on human population distribution?
The higher the insolation, the higher the temperature. AND
The lower the insolation, the lower the temperature. [The hotter the body, the shorter the electromagnetic waves. The cooler the body, the longer the electro-magnetic waves.
2d) What is temperature and what instrument is used in measuring temperature?
Temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance; a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms or molecules in a substance.

The instrument used to measure temperature is usually the THERMOMETER.
2e) Several methods of heat transfer have been identified by scientists. Describe each of the methods discussed in the classroom.
1. Convection: The up and down movement of gases and liquids caused by heat transfer. The transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance. How air and water transfer from the Equator to the Poles (North/South).
2. Radiation: The transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves. Radiation is smothering like a big fire where you feel the heat.
3. Conduction: The transfer of heat throuogh matter by molecular activity. Energy is transferred from through collisions from one molecule to another. (Water is a good conductor of heat. Wood is a VERY BAD conductor of heat).
4. ABSORPTION: Energy that is coming into a thing and it is soaking or absorbs it.
5. ADVECTION: Transport mechanism of a substance. Horizontal movement that has a horizontal effect.
6. REFLECTION: The process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encouters a surface [fresh snow can reflect all of the light back 100% or Albedo - The reflective rate of an object]
7. TRANSMISSION: Glass is a good transmitter. Ability of a body to allow light to pass thru it (glass).
8. SCATTERING: The redirecting in all directions, of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere forever [energy is lost forever].
9. ADIABATIC PROCESSES: A thermodynamic change of state in a system in which there is no transfer of heat or mass across the boundaries of the system. [In this process, compression will result in warming and expansion will result in cooling].
10. LATENT HEAT: Energy absorbed or released.
2f) What two agents are responsible for transferring heat from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration?
The two agents responsible for transferring heat from regions of high concentratin to regions of low concentration are 1. Water (ocean current) and 2. Air - Atmospheric circulation (currents).
2f) Describe the mechanisms involved with the two agents responsible for transferring heat from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
The mechanisms involved are CONVECTION (how air and water transfer from the equator to the Poles (North/South) AND ADVECTION (how energy comes into a thing and it is soaking or absorbes it).
2g) What are the major causes of variation of insolation?
The major causes of variation of insolation are:
1. Angles of the sun's rays.
2. Duration of sunlight
3. Cloud cover - Atmospheric obstruction
2h) What three generalizations are made about global insolation distribution?
1. Insolation decreases from lower latitude to higher latitude
2. Annual insolation at the top of the atmosphere is constant from year to year at a given latitude
3. Insolation varies more at the higher latitude than at the lower latitude.
2i) What is energy?
The capacitiy to do work.
2i) What is difference between kinetic energy and potential energy?
Kinetic Energy is the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its motion. The energy an object has due to its motion. Potential Energy is Energy that is stored and held in readiness. The energy that an object has because of the position, shape, or condition of the object.
2j) What are the three major causes of variation in insolation?
The major causes of variation of insolation are:
1. Angles of the sun's rays.
2. Duration of sunlight
3. Cloud cover - Atmospheric obstruction.
3a) What causes the seasons?
1. Rotation of the Earth on its axis.
2. Revolution of the earth around the sun.
3. Inclination or tilting of the Earth's axis.
3b) Give the four seasons (give their technical names) of the Northern Hemisphere with their approximate starting dates.
Vernal Equinox: Spring - 3/20 or 21
Summer solstice: Summer - 6/21 or 22
Autumnal Equinox: Fall - 9/22 or 9/23
Winter Solstice: Winter - 12/21 or 12/22
3c) What seasons actually exist in regions between the Arctic Circle and North Pole and between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn?
Day Season and Night Season
3d) Define weather and climate.
WEATHER is the immediate state of the atmosphere, in a certain place at a certain time.
CLIMATE - defines the aggregate of weather conditions at a place, or region, over a long period of time.
Climate is predictable. Weather is NOT predictable.
3e) What are the four major elements of weather?
1. Temperature. 2. Moisture. 3. Pressure. 4. Wind.
3e) Which of the 4 major elements are used for classifying climates?
Moisture and Temperature.
3e) Identify the controls of temperature (same for climate), and discuss how they influence temperature or climate.
The main factors that cause variations in temperature from one place to another; latitude, land and water distribution, ocean currents, elevation, differential heating of land and water, ocean currents, altitude, geographic position, cloud cover.
3e) Identify the controls of climate (same for temperature), and discuss how they influence temperature or climate.
Latitude: Hottest parts are at tropics of cancer and capricorn
Surface Properties:
-Albedo
-Specific Heat:
It takes more to heat up water than land
-Aspect and Topography: windward side of the mountain is wetter and leeward side is drier. Which way does the slope face?
-Altitude: The higher you go up the colder it is
Land-water relationship:If you live on the coast it will be colder in the summer and warmer in the winter.
4a) What is atmospheric pressure?
The force exerted by the collision of million of atmospheric molecules. The weight of the atmosphere on the earth's surface. This force is omni-directional.
4a) How is atmospheric pressure related to temperature and density?
The higher the temperature, the lower the density and pressure.
4b) What is wind? Identify the factors that affect wind or air flow.
Wind-Power (some from the government). The factprs that affect wind or air flow are:
Pressure Gradient
Rotation [Coriolis Effect]
Frictional Effect [Mountains, Buildings]
4b) Identify the factors that affect wind or air flow.
Pressure Gradient
Rotation [Coriolis Effect]
Frictional Effect [Mountains, Buildings]
4c) Identify the following pressure terms: PRESSURE GRADIENT.
The amount of pressure change occurring over a given distance.
4c) Identify the following pressure terms: HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBIUM
Hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance is the condition in fluid mechanics where a volume of a fluid is at rest or at constant velocity. This occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient force.[1] For instance, the pressure gradient force prevents gravity from collapsing the Earth's atmosphere into a thin, dense shell, while gravity prevents the pressure gradient force from diffusing the atmosphere into space.
4c) Identify the following pressure terms: ISOBARS
A line drawn on a map connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure, usually corrected to sea level.
4d) What is geostrophic wind and when does it occur?
GEOSTROPHIC WIND is a wind, usually above a height of 600 meters [2,000 ft], that blows parallel to the isobars.
The geostrophic wind is the theoretical wind that would result from an exact balance between the Coriolis effect
and the pressure gradient force. This condition is called geostrophic balance. The geostrophic wind is directed parallel to isobars (lines of constant pressure at given height).
4d) What is sea level pressure in inches and in centimeter?
The pressure at sea level is 29.92 inches and 76 centimeters.
4b) With aid of a diagram identify the six world pressure belts with their associated wind systems.
.See Tablet notes. Seven pressure belts of the world & their associated wind systems are:
Polar High - Belt Polar Easterlies - Wind Sys
Subpolar Low-Belt Prevailing Westerlies - Wind Sys
SubTropical High-Belt NorthE.Tradewinds - Wind Sys
Equational Low - Belt SouthE Tradewinds - Wind Sys
SubTropical High-Belt Prevailing Westerlies -Wind Sys
Subpolar Low - Belt Polar Easterlies-WindSys
Polar High Belt
4c) What are cyclones and anticyclones?
CYCLONES are centers or shells of low pressure characterized by converging airflow, rising air, cloudy skies, and precipitation. The air flow is in and up and is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. All major storms are associated with cyclones.
ANTICYCLONES are Centers or shells of low pressure characterized by converging airflow, rising air, cloudy skies, and precipitation. The air flow is in and up and is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. All major storms are associated with cyclones
4c) Identify the characteristics of ANTICYCLONES.
Centers of high pressure characterized by diverging airflow, sinking air and clear skies with little or no precipitation. The air flow is out and down and is clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.
5a) What is the temperature in Fahrenheit, if the Celsius reads 10°? F = 9/5 C + 32
.
5b) What is the temperature in Celsius, if the Fahrenheit reads 95°? C = 5/9 (F - 32)
.
5c) What is the above reading (#b) in Kelvin? K = C + 273
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5d) What is the temperature in Celsius, if the Fahrenheit reads -22°? C = 5/9 (F - 32)
.
5e) What is the temperature in Celsius, if Kelvin reads 298?
.
5f) What is temperature in Fahrenheit when the reads -40°?
.
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: BAROMETER
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure.
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: WIND-VANE
Instrument used to measure wind direction
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: AEROVANE.
A wind instrument that indicates or records both wind speed and wind direction. Also called skyvanne. Measures wind direction and wind speed.
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: ANEMOMETER.
An instrument used to determine wind speed.
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: THERMOMETER.
An instrument used to measure temperature
6a) Identify the following weather instruments: HYGROMETER.
An instrument designed to measure relative humidity.
6b) What is humidity?
A general term referring to water vapor in the air but not to liquid droplets of fog, cloud, or rain.
6b) How is HUMIDITY expressed?
As a percent (%).
6c) What are aerosols? Are they formed only by human activities or do they occur naturally?
Aerosols are solid and liquid tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols are formed by BOTH human activities AND they occur naturally.
6d) Describe sensible and latent heat.
SENSIBLE HEAT - Heat detectable by sense of touch, or with a thermometer. Heat that causes a change in temperature.
LATENT HEAT - is the energy absorbed or released during a change in state.
6e) What does the term albedo mean?
The reflectivity of a substance, usually expressed as a percentage of the incident radiation reflected.
6f) What is coriolis force (effect)?
The deflective force of Earth's rotation on all free-moving objects, including the atmosphere and oceans. Deflection of movement of objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
6f) What are the four characteristics of Coriolis Force [Effect]?
1. Is always directed at right angles to the direction of airflow;
2. Affects only wind direction, not wind speed;
3. Is affected by wind speed [the stonger the wind, the greater the deflection];
4. Is strongest at the poles and weakens equatorward, becoming nonexistent at the equator.