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Unit 1 Test - Part 1
Terms in this set (75)
The scientist known for his use of attenuated vaccines and as the father of immunology is:
The field of immunology can be credited for its contributions to the development of:
The ancient practice of inhaling powder from smallpox scabs is an early version of:
Attenuation can take place through _______ a pathogen.
Phagocytosis is appropriately categorized into which of the following?
a) Adaptive immunity
b) Innate immunity
c) Humoral immunity
d) Specific immunity
A patient with a viral infection that has initiated their cell-mediated immunity might have an increased number of which leukocytes in their peripheral blood?
Which of the following cells can phagocytize foreign microbes?
a) T lymphocytes
b) B lymphocytes
d) NK cells
Which of the following cells is a phagocytic cell that has a similar morphology to nerve cells?
b) Dendritic cells
c) Mast cells
Macrophages play a key role in adaptive immunity through which function?
Presenting phagocytosed microbes to T lymphocytes
Which is a key antigen-presenting cell found in the digestive tract?
Maturation and differentiation of important immune cells happens within the:
Secondary lymphoid tissues that are located near our joins and serve as a collecting duct for lymph fluid are:
Foreign microbes that enter through a cut in our hand should expect defense from which lymphoid tissue?
Macrophages line the _____ found within the lymph nodes.
We can identify cells by proteins found on their cell surfaces. These are known as:
Clusters of differentiation
Which CD marker represents those found on B lymphocytes?
A patient with antibodies in their serum to a particular virus has activated which immune cells?
Humoral immunity is a key function of which cell?
Which lymphocyte is a part of our innate immunity?
Our first line of defense against virally infected cells and tumor cells are:
Which of the following is an internal defense mechanism?
a) Keratin coating epithelial cells
b) Surfactant in mucosal secretions
c) Lactic acid in sweat
A pathogen entering the respiratory tract would encounter which external defense mechanism?
Movement of cilia
A pathogen entering the urinary tract would encounter which external defense mechanism?
Normal flora is best described by which of the following statements?
a) One type of bacteria that is normally present and never causes disease
b) A mix of bacteria that are normally present that never cause disease
c) A mix of bacteria that are normally present and do not typically cause disease
d) One type of bacteria that is normally present and that we constantly are defending against
A mix of bacteria that are normally present and do not typically cause disease
Inflammatory bowel syndrome may be better understood by looking at which of the following?
a) Interaction between the innate immune system and the gut microbe
b) Interaction between the innate immune system and Candida albicans
c) Interaction between the adaptive immune system and the gut microbiome
d) Interaction between the adaptive immune system and Candida albicans
Interaction between the innate immune system and the gut microbe
Which of the following cells are capable of recognizing PAMPs?
a) B lymphocytes
d) T lympocytes
Which of the following describes the role of PRRs in adaptive immunity?
a) Promotes release of cytokines and chemokines
b) Activation of phagocytic cells
c) Activation of inflammation
d) Recruitment of additional phagocytic cells
Promotes release of cytokines and chemokines
Which best describes the process of a neutrophil recognizing zymosan and phagocytosing a pathogen?
a) An adaptive immune response to a gram-negative bacterial invasion
b) An innate immune response to a yeast invasion
c) An innate immune response to a gram-negative bacterial invasion
d) An adaptive immune response to a gram-positive bacterial invasion
An innate immune response to a yeast invasion
The highest concentration of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) would be found in which of the following cells?
a) Dendritic cells
Acute phase reactants act by doing which of the following?
a) Promoting destruction by releasing proteolytic enzymes
b) Promoting adherence to pathogens
c) Limiting phagocytosis
d) Limiting adherence to pathogens
Promoting adherence to pathogens
Acute phase reactants contribute to innate immunity most through their involvement in which process?
Which acute phase reactant is capable of opsonization?
Which of the following acute phase reactants can lyse cells?
a) C-reactive protein
Measurement of C-reactive protein is an established tool in the analysis of which disease?
Which of the following occurs during an inflammatory response?
a) Constriction of blood vessels
b) Decreased permeability of fluid through the vessels
d) Migration of macrophages within 30 mins.
Which inflammatory response is responsible for swelling?
Increased permeability of fluid through vessels
What is the importance of lysosomal granules in phagocytic cells?
Proteolytic enzymes are needed for digestion of pathogens
Phagocytosis is a critical part of which of the following?
a) Innate, specific, internal defense mechanism
b) Innate, non-specific, internal defense mechanism
c) Innate, non-specific, external defense mechanism
d) Adaptive, specific, internal defense mechanism
Innate, non-specific, internal defense mechanism
How does phagocytosis contribute to adaptive immunity
Macrophages present peptides from pathogens to T cells
NK cells routinely check cells for _____ to determine if they are healthy.
Class I major histocompatibility complex
If an NK cell ultimately deems a host cell as unhealthy or infected, the result is:
An antigenic determinant is also called:
Which of the following would be the most effective immunogen?
a) One that is genetically foreign and has a single epitope
b) One with a molecular weight of less than 10,000 Da
c) one with multiple epitopes with many specificities
d) One with multiple epitopes with single repeated specificity
one with multiple epitopes with many specificities
Which molecule is the best immunogen?
Which low-molecular-weight molecule has one binding site for an antibody?
Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by class I and class II MHC molecules?
a) Expressed dominantly
b) Involved in antigen recognition
c) Members of immunoglobulin superfamily
d) Expressed constitutively on all nucleated cells
Expressed constitutively on all nucleated cells
Antigen recognition by CD4-positive T cells requires:
Class II MHC molecules
Antigens found in different species that trigger a similar antibody response are called:
The term "human leukocyte antigen: is synonymous with:
major histocompatibility comples
The ability to respond to antigen depends on which of the following factors?
b) Genetic predisposition
c) Proper nutrition
d) All of the above
All of the above
The macromolecule that is capable of eliciting an immune response is an immunocompetent host is called:
A bacterial antigen to which the human immune system responds would be classified as:
The substance that is too small to stimulate antibody production by itself unless it is attached to a larger carrier molecule is called:
If a person has a reaction to poison ivy, this is caused by:
A hapten complexing with a tissue protein
A substance used to enhance antibody formation is called:
MHC class I antigens are recognized by which of the following cells?
CD8+ T cells
Characteristics of heterophile antigens include which of the following?
a) Found in unrelated plants or animals but cross-react with the same antibody
b) One's own self-antigens
c) Any antigens used for immunization
d) All of the above
Found in unrelated plants or animals but cross-react with the same antibody
What must be matched between donor and recipient as closely as possible to avoid rejection of tissue transplant?
MHC class I protein is found on:
all nucleated cells
The chief distinction of an immunogen is:
Ability to stimulate an immune response
Which of the following would not impact an individual's ability to form an immune response?
a) Stress level
Which is not a factor in an immunogen's immunogenicity?
a) Molecular size
b) Chemical composition
c) Degree of foreignness
d) Staining properties
A peptide from intracellular bacteria is presented to a T cell by:
MHC class I molecule
A cell that can recall previous contact with a particular antigen so that subsequent exposure leads to a more rapid and more effective immune response than the first encounter is which type of cell?
The purpose of negative selection of B cells is to:
eliminate B cells that are specific for self-antigens
When IgM on the surface of an immature B cell binds to a self-antigen, which process can occur?
Antigen-independent differentiation of B cells occurs in the:
Predominant cell types involved in the humoral immune response are:
The receptor for antigen on a mature naïve B cell is:
The difference in kinetics between an innate and adaptive immune response is caused by the presence of:
memory cells in the adaptive response
The only cells in the body capable of specifically recognizing and distinguishing different antigenic determinants are:
T lymphocytes undergo antigen-independent maturation in the:
How are cytotoxic T cells and NK cells similar?
Both induce apoptosis in target cell
Cytotoxic T cells are the primary immune response against which type of pathogen?
The cells that primarily function by secreting large amounts of cytokines are:
T helper cells
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