Medical Terminology: Chapter 8
Terms in this set (158)
Occur in any structural region of the brain. They may be malignant or benign, classified as primary or secondary, and are named according to the tissue from which they originate.
Primary intracranial tumors
A rise from gliomas, malignant glial cells that are a support for nerve tissue, and from tumors that arise from the meninges.
Metastatic intracranial tumors (secondary)
Occur as a result of metastasis from primary site such as the lung or breast. They occur mor frequently than primary neoplasms.
Meningitis (acute bacterial)
A serious bacterial infection of the meninges that can have residual debilitating effects or even a fatal outcome if not diagnosed and treated promptly with appropriate antibiotic therapy.
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
A degenerative inflammatory disease of the cns attacking the myelin sheath in the spinal cord and brain, leaving it hardened or scarred and interrupting the flow of nerve impulses.
A chronic progressive neuromuscular disorder causing severe skeletal muscle weakness (without atrophy) and fatigue, which occurs at different levels of severity.
Highly malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system.
A degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem's motor system characterized by gradual onset of symptoms such as a stooped posteure with body flexed forward.
A general term indicating inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves, the effects being dependent on the particular nerve involved.
An infectious viral disease entering through the upper respiratory tract and affecting the ability of spinal cord and brain motor neurons to receive stimulation; muscles affected become paralyzed.
Progressive weakness occurring at least 30 yrs after the initial polio attack.
An acute brain encephalopathy along with fatty infiltration of the internal organs that may follow acute viral infections; occurs in children between 5 and 11, often with a fatal result.
A hole drilled into the skull using a form of drill.
The lower end of the spinal cord and the roots of the spinal nerves that occupy the spinal canal below the level of the first lumbar vertebra; resembles a horse tail.
A sensation of an acute burning pain along the path of a peripheral nerve, sometimes accompanied by erythema of the skin; due to injury to peripheral nerve fibers.
The part of the cell that contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Central nervous system (CNS)
One of two main divisions of the nervous system, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord.
Pain in the head; a headache.
The part of the brain responsible for coordinating voluntary muscular movement; located behind the brain stem.
A brief interruption of brain function, usually with loss of consciousness; lasting for a few seconds. Usually caused by a blunt trauma to the head.
Small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain; better described as a "bruise" of the brain tissue occurring when the brain strikes the inner skull.
The thin outer layer of nerve tissue, known as gray matter, that covers the surface of the cerebrum.
The fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact.
The largest and uppermost part of the brain. It controls consciousness, memory, sensation, emotions, and voluntary movements.
An abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by periods of apnea followed by deep rapid breathing.
A deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli.
Pertains to being in a coma.
A permanent shortening of a muscle causing a joi8nt ot remain in an abnormally flexed position, with resultant physical deformity.
One of the many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum; also called a gyrus.
A surgical incision into the cranium or skull.
Any deficiency or variation of the normal.
A progressive irreversible mental disorder in which the person has deteriorating memory, judgment, and the ability to think.
Destruction or removal of the myelin sheath that covers a nerve or nerve fiber.
An abnormal increase of CSF in the brain that causes the ventricles of the brain to dilate, resulting in an increased head circumference in the infant with open fontels; congenital disorder.
A collection of blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid layer of the meninges.
A collection of blood located above the dura mater and just below the skull.
Grand mal seizure
An epileptic seizure characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and by generalized involuntary muscular contraction vacillating between rigid body extension and alternating contraction and relaxing of muscles.
The inflammation of the brain or spinal cord tissue largely caused by a virus that enters the CNS when the person experiences a viral disease such as the measles or mumps or through the bite of a mosquito or tick.
Is the deterioration of the intervertebral disk, usually due to constant motion and wear on the disk.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A pinching or compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel due to inflammation and swelling of the tendons.
A localized accumulation of pus located anywere in the brain due to an infectious process.
A temporary or permanent unilateral weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the face following trauma to the face, an unknown infection, or a tumor pressing on the facial nerve rendering it paralyzed.
The part of the nervous system consisting of axons covered with myelin sheath, giving a white appearance.
An injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back and forth jerking movement of the head and neck.
A small hollow within the brain that is filled with CSF.
The part of the brain located between the cerebral hemispheres and the midbrain. The thalamus receives all sensory stimuli except smell, and relays them to the cerebral cortex.
Copying or producing the same effects as those of the sympathetic nerves; "to mimic"
Nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions.
The space located just under the arachnoid membrane that contains CSF.
The part of the bran located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. It acts as a bridge to connect the MO and the cerebellum to the upper portions of the brain.
A network of interwoven nerves.
A small cone shaped structure thought to be involved in regulating in body's biological clock and that produces melatonin; also called the pineal gland.
The inner most of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Copying or producing the same effects as those of the parasympathetic nerves; "to mimic"
Nerves of the ANS that regulate essential involuntary body functions.
The supporting tissue of the nervous system.
Inflammation of a nerve.
Severe, sharp, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves.
A protective sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body. It acts as an electrical insulator and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
The uppermost part of the brain stem.
The three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Most essential part of the brain that contains the cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers of the brain.
A deep groove in the middle of the cerebrum that divides the cerebrum into left and right sides.
A state of being sluggish.
The study of muscle movement.
A part of the brain located below the thalamus that controls many functions such as body temp, sleep, and appetite.
Excessive muscular movement and physical activity.
Paralysis of one half of the body.
Slight or partial paralysis of one half of the body.
One of many elevated folds of the surface of the cerebrum.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Involve death of a specific portion of brain tissue, resulting from a decrease in blood flow to that area of the brain; also called a stroke.
Is a collective term used to describe congenital brain damage that is permanent but not progressive. it is characterized by the child's lack of control of voluntary muscles.
The absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth, a congenital disorder.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Is a severe weakening and wasting of the involved muscle groups, usually beginning with the hands and progressing to the shoulders, upper arms and legs. It is caused by decreased nerve innervation to the muscle group.
A seizure characterized by the presence of muscle contraction or tension followed by relaxation, creating a "jerking" movement of the body.
An abnormal condition in which a clot develops in a blood vessel.
The space located just beneath the dura mater that contains serous fluid.
Somatic nervous system (SNS)
The part of the PNS that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle contractions.
A tube or passage that diverts or redirects body fluid from one cavity or vessel to another; may be congenital defect or artificially constructed for the purpose of redirecting fluid.
The surgical resection of a spinal nerve root; also called a rhizotomy.
The process by which certain cells engulf and destroy microorganisms.
A sensation of numbness or tingling.
A type of neuroglial cell fond in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system. Its dendrite projections coil around the axons of many neurons to form the myelin sheath.
Rigidity of the neck. The neck is resistant to flexion. Seen in patients with meningitis.
A chemical substance within the body that activates or inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses at synapse.
The injection of a local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the are supplied by the nerve; also called conduction anesthesia.
Small neurological cells found in the interstitial tissue of the nervous system that engulf cellular debris waste products, and pathogens within the nerve tissue.
A diagnostic sign for meningitis marked by the person's inability to extend the leg completely when the thigh is flexed upon the abdomen and the person is sitting or lying down.
Connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to or toward motor neurons.
Excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch.
A knotlike mass of nerve tissue found outside the brain or spinal cord.
The style of walking.
The space immediately outside the dura mater that contains a supporting cushion of fat and other connective tissue.
An abnormal condition in which a blood clot (embolus) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood within the vessel.
Transmitters of nerve impulses away from the CNS; also known as motor nerves.
Double vision; also called ambiopia.
The part of the brain located between the cerebrum an the midbrain. Its main structures consist of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal gland.
The part of the nervous system consisting of axons that are not covered with myelin sheath, giving a gray appearance.
A neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of sudden brief attacks of seizures. The seizure may vary from mild and unnoticeable to full scale convulsive seizures.
A condition characterized by an impairment of the ability to read.
The outermost of the three membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
A projection that extends from the nerve cell body. It receives impulses and conducts them on the cell body.
An inherited neurological disease characterized by rapid, jerky, involuntary movements and increasing dementia due to the effects of the basal ganglia on the neurons.
Occurs from long, endured contraction of the skeletal muscles around the face, scalp, upper back, and neck.
Occurs typically two to three hours after falling asleep; described as extreme pain around one eye that wakens the person from sleep.
Guillain- Barre syndrome
An acute polyneuritis of the PNS in which the myelin sheaths on the axons are destroyed, resulting in decreased nerve impulses. Loss of reflex response and sudden muscle weakness, which usually follows a viral gastrointestinal or respitory infection.
Petit mal seizure
A small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds; also known as an absence seizure.
A small seizure in which there is a sudden temporary loss of consciousness lasting only a few seconds.
A chemical substance in the body tissues that facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses form one nerve to another; also known as a neurotransmitter.
Transmitters of nerve impulses toward the CNS; also known as sensory nerves.
Loss of mental ability to understand sensory stimuli (such a sight, sound or touch) even though sensory organs themselves are functioning properly.
The inability to convert one's thoughts into writing.
The inability to understand written words.
Without sensitivity to pain.
Without feeling or sensation.
A localized dilatation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery; usually caused by hypertension or artherosclerosis.
Inability to communicate through speech. Writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease in certain areas of the brain.
Inability to perform coordinated movements or use objects properly; not associated with sensory or motor impairment or paralysis.
The weblike middle layer of three membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
A star shaped neuroglial cell found in the CNS.
A tumor of the brain or spinal cord composed of astrocytes.
Without muscular coordination.
The sensation an individual experiences prior to the on set of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure. It may be a sensation of light or warmth and may precede the attack by hours or only a few seconds.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary vital functions of the heart muscle, smooth muscles, and the glands. Has two divisions: The SNS and the PNS.
The part of the nerve cell that transports nerve impulses away from the nerve cell body.
A protective characteristic of the capillary walls of the brain that prevents the passage of harmful substances from the blood stream into the brain tissue or CSF.
Abnormally slow movement.
The stemlike portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. Contains the mid brain, pons, and the medulla oblongata.
A positive sign of meningitis, in which there is an involuntary flexion of the arm, hip, and knee when patient's neck is passively flexed.
A cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae containing meninges and CSF.
A cystlike sac covered with skin or a thin membrane protruding through the bony defect in the vertebrae that contains meninges, CSF, and spinal cord segments.
Spina bifida occulta
A congenital defect of the CNS in which the back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed. A dimpling over the area may occur.
A congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism, resulting from a enzyme deficiency.
Short periods of severe unilateral pain. which radiates along the fifth cranial nerve.
Stroking the sole of the foot, beginning at midheel and moving upward and collateral to the toes. A positive occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.
A nuclear counter scanning of cranial content two hours after an intravenous injection of radioisotopes.
Visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of a radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel.
Cerebrospinal fluid analysis
CSF obtained form a lumbar puncture is analyzed for the presence of bacteria, blood, and malignant cells as well as the amount of protein and glucose present.
CT scan of the brain
Computed tomography is the analysis of the three dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray beams pass through successive horizontal layers of the brain; also called computerized axial tomography (CAT scan).
A neurosurgical procedure for pain control accomplished through a laminectomy, in which there is surgical interference of pathways within the spinal cord that control pain.
Involves insertion of a short, beveled spinal needle into the cisterna magna to drain CSF or to obtain a CSF specimen.
Ultrasound used to analyze the intracranial structures of the brain.
The surgical removal of the bony arches form one or more of the vertebrae to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A noninvasive scanning procedure that provides visualization of fluid, soft tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation.
The introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through the lumbar puncture to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral canal through x-ray examination.
A neurosurgical procedure to relieve pain in a localized or small area by incision of cranial or peripheral nerves.
Used to visualize radiographically one of the ventricles or fluid occupying spaces in the CNS.
A sleep study or sleep test that evaluates physical factors affecting sleep.
Positron emission tomography (PET)
Produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected.
Used to evaluate cerebellar function and balance.
Performed on a precise location of an area within the brain that controls specific function and may involve destruction of brain tissue with various agents such as heat, cold, and sclerosing or corrosive fluids.
A surgical procedure used to interrupt a portion of the sympathetic nerve pathway for the purpose of relieving chronic pain.
The anteolateral pathway in the brain stem is surgically divided in an attempt to relieve pain.
Trascutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
A form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site.