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Abnormal Psychology Midterm

Chapter 1-5 7th edition Ronald J. Comer: Abnormal Psychology
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Abnormal Psychology
The scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning
Clinical Scientist
analyze results using interdependent judgement. they also perform clinical laboratory tests.
Clinical Practitioner
a person who detects, assesses, and treats abnormal patterns of behavior
What is Abnormal?
-Deviant
-Distressing
-Dysfunctional
-Dangerous
Norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
Culture
history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts in a given society that help define normal behavior
Treatment
procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior
Trephination
an operation that removes a circular section of bone from the skull
Hippocrates
"natural causes"; imbalance of 4 fluids he called "humors"
Humors
Four fluids that flow through the body termed by Hippocrates; yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm
Mass Madness
outbreaks where large numbers of people shared delusions and hallucinations
tarantism
a nervous disorder characterized by an uncontrollable impulse to dance; Saint Vitus Dance
Asylum
institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness
Phillippe Pinel
1793, French Revolution, was director at La Bicetre; psychiatrist who demanded humane treatment of mentally ill
William Tuke
English Quaker who established the York retreat, where mental patients lived in humane surroundings
Moral Treatment
a nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment
Benjamin Rush
father of American Psychology, guided mental institutions stateside towards a more humane direction. also used bleeding, ice baths, tranquilizer chair
State Hospitals
reform led by Dorothea Dix
Somatogenic Perspective
the view that abnormal psychological functioning has physiological cause
Psychogenic Perspective
the view that says chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Psychoanalysis
many forms of abnormal and normal psychological functioning are psychogenic; clinicians helped troubled people gain insight into their unconscious psychological processes
Psychotropic Drugs
primarily affect the brain and alleviate many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Deinstitutionalization
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
Private Psychotherapy
Individual pays "healer" directly
Prevention
community movement towards centers
Positive psychology
study and enhancement of positive feeling, traits, abilities
Multicultural Psychology
study how culture, race, ethnicity, gender, etc. affect behavior and though in different cultures, races, genders
Managed Care Program
insurance company determines such key issues: which therapist, cost of sessions, number of sessions, etc.
nomothetic
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
Idiographic
relating to or involving the study of individuals
scientific method
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
case study
detailed; interpretive description of a person's life and psychological problems
internal validity
the extent to which an experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables
external validity
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
Correlational method
a research method used to establish the degree of relationship (correlation) between two characteristics, events, or behaviors
positive correlation
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction
negative correlation
the relationship between two variables in which one variable increases as the other variable decreases
unrelated correlation
no consistent relationship between variables
magnitude of correlation
how closely to two variables correspond
correlation coefficient
describes the direction and strength of the relationship between two sets of variables; from -1 to +1
statistically significant
an observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance
epidemiological study
a study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population
incidence
number of NEW cases in a population during a given time
prevalence
TOTAL number of cases in a population during a given time
longitudinal studies
researchers observe the same individuals on many occasion over a long period of time
experiment
a research method in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable observed
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the variable that is measured in an experiment and changes as a result of a change in the independent variable
confounds
variables other than the independent variable that may also be affecting the dependent variable
control group
the group that is treated in the same way as the experimental group except that the experimental treatment (the independent variable) is not applied
experimental group
participants who are exposed to the independent variable
random assignment
any selection procedure that ensures that every subject in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as the other
blind design
preventing participants form finding out which group they are in
placebo therapy
something that looks or tastes like real therapy
double blind therapy
both experimenter and participant do not know which group is the control and which group is the experimental group
quasi-experiment
performs experiment on groups that already exist; mixed design
natural experiment
nature manipulates the independent variable and experimenter observes
analogue experiment
inducing laboratory participants to behave in ways that seem to resemble real life abnormal behavior and then conduct experiments
single-subject experimental design
single participant is observed both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable
biological model
model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body
cortex
outer layer of the brain
anti-anxiety drugs
minor tranquilizers and anxiolytics; help reduce tension and anxiety i.e.: lorazopam (Atavan), alprazolam (Xanax), and diazepam (Valium)
anti-depression drugs
improve moods; sertraline (Zoloft), fluoxetine (Prozac), and escitalopram (Lexapro)
mood stabilizers
used to treat bi-polar; lithium
anti-psychotic drugs
reduce confusion, hallucinations, and delusions of psychotic disorders i.e. quetiapine (Seroquel), resperidone (Risperdal), haloperidol (Haldol)
electroconvulsive therapy
treatment where electrodes send an electrical current of 65-140 V through the forehead into the brain; treat severe depresion
neurosurgery
brain surgery for mental disorders; lobotomy
psychodynamic model
model that views disorders as the result of childhood trauma or anxieties and that holds that many of these childhood-based anxieties operate unconsciously
Id
instinctual needs, drives, and impulses; operates in accordance with pleasure principle
Ego
unconsciously seeks gratification but in accordance with the reality principle
Ego defense mechanism
such as repression; prevents unacceptable impulses from ever reaching consciousness
Super Ego
Freud; "moral watchdog"; governs behavior by reality and morality, often taught by parents, church and/or community; standards develop through interaction; conscience; ego ideal
fixated
stuck in an early stage due to lack of adjustment
ego theorist
theorists who emphasize the role of the ego and consider it more independent
Self theorist
theorists who emphasize the healthy development of self-interest; greatest role to unified personality
objective relations theorist
theorists who emphasize that people are motivated mainly by a need to be in relationships
psychodynamic therapies
treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual's problems
Free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Therapist Interpretation
psychodynamic technique where the therapist listen and encourage the patient to talk; resistance, transference, and dreams
Resistance
unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy, when they suddenly cannot free associate or when they change a subject
Transference
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
latent content
(psychoanalysis) hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream
catharsis
(psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions
short-term psychodynamic therapy
psychodynamic therapies that are limited in the number of sessions, for example 25 sessions; sessions are weekly for a fixed period of time unlike most psychodynamic therapies which meet 3x/week for years
relational psychoanalytic therapy
a form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists active participants in the formation of patients' feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients
conditioning
a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
operant conditioning
behavior learned by means of receiving a reward
modeling
learning by imitating others; copying behavior
classical conditioning
learning occurs by temporal association; two events occur repeatedly and close together in time so that they become fused in the subject's mind
Systematic desensitization
A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
self-efficacy
the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes
cognitive behavioral therapies
cognitions as learned behavior
cognitive therapy
developed by Aaron Beck, a form of therapy based on a collaborative effort between clients and therapists that helps clients recognize and correct distorted patterns of thinking believed to underlie their emotional problems
self-actualize
to fulfill one's potential for goodness and growth
client-centered therapy
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Gestalt Therapy
An humanistic/existentialist approach to treatment with the goal of helping the client become aware of his or her thoughts, behaviors, experiences, and feelings and to "own" or take responsibility for them
existential therapy
a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values
sociocultural perspective
A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
family systems theory
a theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules
group therapy
psychotherapy in which a small group of individuals meet with a therapist
self help group
a type of therapy group in which members share a common problem, such as alcoholism, with no therapist present
family therapy
group therapy with family members
multicultural perspective
A perspective that clearly recognizes the potential importance of gender; age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, religious orientation, and many other social and cultural dimensions.
biopsychosocial theories
explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences
assessment
collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion or diagnosis
reliability
consistency of assessment measures
validity
accurately measure what it is supposed to measure
clinical interview
face to face encounter to observe reactions, what the patient says, to get a sense of who they are
Mental status exam
a set of questions and observations that systematically evaluate the client's awareness, orientation with regard to time and place, attention span, memory, judgment and insight, thought content and processes; mood and appearance
Tests
devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning, from which broader information about the person can be inferred
projective tests
test that requires clients interpret vague stimuli, such as ink blots or ambiguous pictures or follow open-ended instructions such as "draw a person"; clients project aspects of personality in vague settings (psychodynamic = access unconscious drives)
Rorschach Test
a projective tests using bilaterally symmetrical inkblots
Thematic apperception Test (TAT)
shown 30 black and white photos of people and asked to make up a dramatic story about each; "hero"
sentence-completion test
1920's; asks client to finish sentence such as "my father..."
Personality Inventory
asks respondents a wide range of questions about behavior, belief, and feelings
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; consists of more than 500 selt-statements: T/F/Cannot say
Response Inventories
ask people to give detailed information, but focus on one specific area of functioning; used by cognitive therapists
Psychophysiolgocial test
measure physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems ~ polygraph
Neurological tests
designed to measure brain structure and activity directly i.e. EEG (electro encephalogram); records brain waves
neuroimaging
CAT, PET scan, MRI, fMRI
CT Scan
X rays of brains structure are taken at different angles and put together
PET Scan
Functioning of different areas of brain
Neuropsychological Tests
measure cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances
Intelligence Test
series of tasks requiring use of various verbal and nonverbal skills i.e. IQ tests
Naturalists observation
observe client in natural setting
Analogue Observation
aided by equipment: video camera or two-way mirror for a long period of time
self-monitoring
people observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings, or cognitions; flawed as people may filter recording
diagnosis
determination that a person's psychological problems constitute a particular disorder
syndrome
certain symptoms regularly occur together; cluster of symptoms
DSM-IV-TR
most widely used classification system in US
Anxiety: anxiety and worry, panic, OCD
Mood: extremely sad or extremely elated
Axis I
mental retardation: subaverage intellect
Personality: rigid maladaptive pattern of inner experience and outer behavior
Axis II
General Medical Information
Axis III
psychosocial/environmental problems
Axis IV
Global Assessment of functioning; GAF: 100 pt scale
Axis V
evidence based treatment
treatments that are dependent on critically evaluated research and are essentially empirically tested
anxiety
vague sense of being in danger
anxiety disorder
most common mental disorder in the US; plagued by anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
experience excessive anxiety under most circumstance and worry about practically anything; last 6 months
client-centered therapy
unconditional positive regard for clients; empathize - Humanist approach
Albert Ellis
basic irrational assumption theorist
Aaron Beck
silent assumptions that they are in eminent danger
Metacognitive
(Adrian Wells); suggests that people with general anxiety disorder implicitly hold both positive and negative beliefs about worrying
rational-emotive therapy
therapist points out the irrational assumptions of the client, suggest more appropriate assumptions, and assign homework that gives the individual practice at challenging old assumptions and apply new ones
family pedigree studies
Studies designed to investigate whether a disorder runs in families
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
social phobia
any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with situations in which you are subject to criticism by others (as fear of eating in public or public speaking etc)
stimulus generalization
(psychology) transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
systematic desensitization
learn to relax while gradually facing the object or situations of fear
flooding
people will stop fearing thing when they are exposed to phobias repeatedly
panic attacks
periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, palpitations, tingling, shortness of breath, trembling, chest pains, faintness, dizziness; no exact cause
panic disorder
symptoms and attacks for a month or more; often anxious about another attack occuring
agoraphobia
"fear of the market place" - social anxiety
biological challenge test
researchers produce hyperventilation by drugs
anxiety sensitivity
fear of fear, involving excessive concern that anxiety symptoms will spin out of control
obsessions
persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that invade a person's consciousness
compulsions
repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety
exposure and response prevention
a behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts; 55-85% improve
neutralize
attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts
habituation training
a therapeutic technique in which a therapist tries to call forth a client's obsessive thoughts again and again, with the expectation that the thoughts will eventually lose their power to frighten and thus to cause anxiety
orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei
abnormal functioning part of the brain in OCD
stress management program
cognitive treatment, relaxation techniques, or biofeedback
Acute Stress disorders
symptom begin with four weeks after trauma and less than 1 month
PTSD
symptoms begin anytime after trauma and continue longer than a month
Stress Symptoms
Flashbacks
Avoidance
Reduced Responsiveness
Increased Arousal
Causes of Stress disorder
Wartime trauma
Natural Disaster
Victimization
Rape
forced sexual intercourse or another sexual act committed against a non-consenting person or sexual intercourse with an underage person
Torture
brutal, degrading, and disorienting strategies in order to reduce victims to a state of utter helplessness
What affects who gets stress disorders?
-Severity: more severe the trauma, the more likely
-Personality: hardier people - optimism
-Childhood Experiences: poverty, catastrophe, trauma
-Social Support: PTSD in vietnam vs WWII
rap groups
individuals meet with others like themselves to share experiences and feelings, develop insights, and give mutual support
critical incident stress debriefing
have people talk extensively about their feelings and reactions within days of the critical incident
What medicine is used to treat PTSD?
Anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs
Psychophysiological disorders
illness that result from an interaction of psychosocial and organic factors
Ulcer
a lesion that results in the wall of the stomach or duodenum
Asthma
narrowing of trachea and bronchi, which results in shortness of breach, wheezing, coughing and choking sensation
insomnia
difficulty falling or staying asleep
tension headache
headache caused by a narrowing of muscles around the skull
migraine
severe headache that occurs on one side of the head, often preceded by a warning sensation and sometimes accompanied by dizziness, nausea, or vomiting
hypertension
chronic high BP
somatoform disorder
psychological disorders masquerading as physical problems
dissociative disorders
patterns of memory loss and identity change that are caused almost entirely by psychosocial factors rather than physical factors
hysterical somatoform disorders
people suffer actual changes in their physical functioning
conversion disorder
psychosocial need or conflict is converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary movement or sensory function
somatization disorder
many long-lasting physical ailments that have little or no organic basis lasts longer than conversion disorder; many years
pain disorder
somatoform disorder marked by pain with psychosocial factors playing a central role in the onset, severity, or continuation of the pain
factitious disorder
illness with no identifiable physical cause, in which the patient is believed to be intentionally producing or faking symptoms in order to assume a sick role
munchausen syndrome
extreme and chronic form of factitious disorder
munchausen syndrome by proxy
factitious disorder in which parents make up or produce illnesses in the children
preoccupation
disorders in which people misinterpret and overreact to minor, even normal, bodily symptoms or features
hypochondriasis
disorder in which people mistakenly fear that minor changes in their physical functioning indicate a serious disease
body dysmorphic disorder
disorder marked by excessive worry that some aspect of one's physical appearance is defective
malingering
person reports symptoms when there are none; lying; do it for gain
primary gain
the gain achieved when hysterical symptoms keep internal conflicts out of awareness
secondary gain
gain achieved when hysterical symptoms elicit kindness from others or provide an excuse to avoid unpleasant activities
memory
the faculty for recalling past events and past learning
dissociative amnesia
inability to recall important personal events and info
dissociative fugue
not only forgets the past but also travels to a new location and may assume a new identity
dissociative identity disorder
has two or more separate identities that may not always be aware of each other's thoughts, feelings, and behavior; EEG shows different personalities
episodic memory
your story, autobiographical events and information
semantic memory
encyclopedic memory remembering ABC's, state capitols, pharmacology facts
subpersonalities
two or more distinct personalities found in individuals suffering with dissociative identity disorder
self-hypnosis
process of biologically separating painful experiences separating them so completely that it did not happen to that person, but a different personality
Depression
low, sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming
mania
opposite of depression, breathless euphoria; frenzied energy; world is theirs for the taking
unipolar depression
only depression and normal with no history of mania
bipolar disorder
periods of mania and periods of depression; more time spent in depression
anhedonia
inability to experience pleasure
Major Episode of unipolar depression
at least 5 symptoms; lasting for 2 weeks or more
major depressive disorder
major episode without mania for elongated period
seasonal depression
ebs and flows with the seasons
recurrent depression
preceded by previous episodes
catatonic depression
immobility or excessive activity
postpartum depression
within four weeks of giving birth and lasting longer than that
melancholic depression
unaffected by pleasurable things
Dysthymic disorder
people who display a long-lasting (at least two years) but less disabling pattern of unipolar depression
Double Depression
when dysthymic disorder leads to major depressive
exogenous depression
depression that follows a clear cut stressful event
endogenous depression
depression in response to internal factors
proband
a person who is the focus of a genetic study
twin studies
when a monozygotic twin had unipolar depression, 46% chance that other twin had it, dizygotic = 20%
Adoption Studies
severe unipolar depression occurred more in biological parents of adoptees who had severe unipolar depression
What chromosome handles serotonin?
Chromosome 17
introjection
mourners merge their own identity with the identity of the person who died and so, in theory, the regain that person
symbolic loss
persons equate other kinds of events with loss of a loved one
object relations theorist on depression
emphasizing relationships, propose depression is a result of when people's relationships leave them feeling unsafe and insecure
anaclitic depression
a pattern of depressed behavior found among very young children that is caused by separation from one's parents
Lewinsohn
suggest that positive reward in life dwindle for some persons, leading them to perform few and fewer constructive behaviors
Beck on depression
negative thinking leads to depression
Cognitive Triad
Negative way to look at:
1)experiences
2)themselves
3)futures
automatic thoughts
a steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to patient that he or she is inadequate and that they're hopeless
learned helplessness
people become depressed when they think they no longer have control over the reinforcements of their lives and they themselves are responsible for this helpless state
bipolar I disorder
people who have full manic and major depressive episodes
bipolar II disorder
people who experience hypomania, or mild manic episodes and major depressive episodes; tend to have more depression over the years
cyclothymic disorder
numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms