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Inborn, automatic responses to stimulation, adaptive value, prepare for future motor skills, tell us about health of nervous system.
reflex when baby is startled or playdropped, it puts out arms and then brings limbs to midline
Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
An infant reflex that occurs when something is placed in the infant's palm; the infant grasps the object.
4-6 months/ infants tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
when infant is supine and head turns to one side, the same arm and leg are extended, and the same arm and leg are flexed. this disappears after 3-4 months, and then the head is maintained at midline
extension upward of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
Eye Blink reflex
permanent reflex. infant quickly closes eyelids. protects infant from strong stimulation.
Sense of Touch
Helps stimulate early physical growth and emotional development, reflexive behaviors, sensitivity to pain
Sense of Smell and Taste
Can distinguish basic tastes, Amniotic fluid is rich in tastes and smells that vary with mother's diet, preferences development in utero, can identify mother at birth, prefer sweet tastes, learn to like new tastes quickly
Sense of Hearing
Can hear a wide variety of sounds and sensitivity improves greatly over the first few months, well developed at birth, hear variety of sounds and pitches, prefer complex sounds, learn patterns quickly, sensitivity to voices and seem prepared to learn language.
Sense of Vision
Least developed sense at birth, can't see far away or focus clearly, try to track objects, color improves over first 3 months, visual structures in the eye and brain are not fully formed, can only see a couple of feet.
Motor skills development
A combination of cognitive and physical development, whereby humans develop the ability to perform a wide range of tasks
Gross- Motor Development
control over actions that help infants get around in the environment., such as crawling, standing and walking.
Factors of Motor Skills
CNS development, body's movement capacity, child's goals, environmental supports
Gain 50% in height from birth to age 1, 75% by age 2, grow in spurts, gain baby fat until 9 months, then get slimmer, fat helps regulate temp, girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys, some ethnic differences
Head grows first then body, arms grow before hands etc. Measure weight, height, head circumference through toddlerhood
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Benefits of Breast Feeding
Correct fat- protein balance, nutritionally complete, promotes healthy growth patterns, disease protection, better tooth and jaw development, ensures digestibility, easier transition to solid food, breast feed for 2 years
a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement
Iron- deficiency anemia
a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
Typical in low income families, food might be provided but it is not nutritional or is not always available.
Consequences of Malnutrition
Physical symptoms, growth and weight problems, poor motor development, learning and attention problems, passive, irritable, and anxiety
method of learning, more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than right after birth,
enable us to observe another person's behavior while stimulating that behavior in our own brain, crying when someone else is crying or feeling their sadness.
Piaget's Sensory Motor stage
spans the first 2 years of life, organized ways of making sense of experiences, called schemes, change with age most complex period of development
In Piagetian theory, a state in which children's schemas are in balance and are undisturbed by conflict, children are not changing much, prompts assimilation
Piaget's term for when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding (dog has 4 of the 5 features of a cat, but doesn't know what a dog is yet) prompts accommodation
new schemes are rearranged, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
coordination of secondary circular reaction
8-12 months, intentional, goal directed behavior, object permanence
18 months- 2 years internal depictions of objects or events, deferred imitation
Zone of Proximal Development
tasks a child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help, scaffolding
Three Theories of Language Development
B.F. Skinner (Behaviorist), Noam Chomsky (Nativist), Interactionist
applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events ex. using car for buses, trains, trucks, and fire engines
Two- word utterances
most children show a steady continuous increase in the rate of word learning through the preschool years. telegraphic speech
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