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73 terms

Human Development Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Reflexes
Inborn, automatic responses to stimulation, adaptive value, prepare for future motor skills, tell us about health of nervous system.
Moro reflex
reflex when baby is startled or playdropped, it puts out arms and then brings limbs to midline
Stepping reflex
Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
Palmar grasp
An infant reflex that occurs when something is placed in the infant's palm; the infant grasps the object.
Swimming reflex
4-6 months/ infants tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water
Rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Tonic reflex
when infant is supine and head turns to one side, the same arm and leg are extended, and the same arm and leg are flexed. this disappears after 3-4 months, and then the head is maintained at midline
Babinski
extension upward of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front
Sucking reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
Eye Blink reflex
permanent reflex. infant quickly closes eyelids. protects infant from strong stimulation.
Sense of Touch
Helps stimulate early physical growth and emotional development, reflexive behaviors, sensitivity to pain
Sense of Smell and Taste
Can distinguish basic tastes, Amniotic fluid is rich in tastes and smells that vary with mother's diet, preferences development in utero, can identify mother at birth, prefer sweet tastes, learn to like new tastes quickly
Sense of Hearing
Can hear a wide variety of sounds and sensitivity improves greatly over the first few months, well developed at birth, hear variety of sounds and pitches, prefer complex sounds, learn patterns quickly, sensitivity to voices and seem prepared to learn language.
Sense of Vision
Least developed sense at birth, can't see far away or focus clearly, try to track objects, color improves over first 3 months, visual structures in the eye and brain are not fully formed, can only see a couple of feet.
Motor skills development
A combination of cognitive and physical development, whereby humans develop the ability to perform a wide range of tasks
Gross- Motor Development
control over actions that help infants get around in the environment., such as crawling, standing and walking.
Fine- Motor Development
smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping
Factors of Motor Skills
CNS development, body's movement capacity, child's goals, environmental supports
Body Growth
Gain 50% in height from birth to age 1, 75% by age 2, grow in spurts, gain baby fat until 9 months, then get slimmer, fat helps regulate temp, girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys, some ethnic differences
Growth Trends
Head grows first then body, arms grow before hands etc. Measure weight, height, head circumference through toddlerhood
Cephalocaudal
"head to tail" lower part of body grows later than the head
Proximodistal
"near to far" extremities grow later than head, chest and trunk
Influences on Early Growth
Heredity, nutrition, emotional well- being
Heredity
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Nutrition
Breast feeding v. bottle feeding, malnutrition
Emotional well- being
problems can cause failure to thrive
Benefits of Breast Feeding
Correct fat- protein balance, nutritionally complete, promotes healthy growth patterns, disease protection, better tooth and jaw development, ensures digestibility, easier transition to solid food, breast feed for 2 years
Types of Malnutrition
marasmus, kwashiorkor, iron-deficiency anemia, food insecurity
Marasmus
extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children)
Kwashiorkor
a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement
Iron- deficiency anemia
a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
Food insecurity
Typical in low income families, food might be provided but it is not nutritional or is not always available.
Consequences of Malnutrition
Physical symptoms, growth and weight problems, poor motor development, learning and attention problems, passive, irritable, and anxiety
Emotional well being
attention is a vital as food for healthy physical growth
Habituation
study of how babies get bored
Imitation
method of learning, more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than right after birth,
Andrew Meltzoff
newborns imitate as much as older children and adults
Mirror Neurons
enable us to observe another person's behavior while stimulating that behavior in our own brain, crying when someone else is crying or feeling their sadness.
Piaget's Sensory Motor stage
spans the first 2 years of life, organized ways of making sense of experiences, called schemes, change with age most complex period of development
Building Schemes
Adaption, Assimilation, Accommodation
Adaption
building schemes
Assimilation
using current schemes to interpret external world
Accommodation
adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment
Cognitive equilibrium
In Piagetian theory, a state in which children's schemas are in balance and are undisturbed by conflict, children are not changing much, prompts assimilation
Cognitive Disequilibrium
Piaget's term for when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding (dog has 4 of the 5 features of a cat, but doesn't know what a dog is yet) prompts accommodation
Organization
new schemes are rearranged, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
Circular reaction
repeating events become strengthened into a new scheme
Sensorimotor Substages
stages from birth to 2 years old
Reflexive Schemes
birth to 1 month, newborn reflexes
primary circular reaction
1 to 4 moths, simple motor habits centered around own body
secondary circular reactions
4 to 8 months, repeat interesting effects in soundings
coordination of secondary circular reaction
8-12 months, intentional, goal directed behavior, object permanence
tertiary circular reactions
12-18 months, explore properties of objects through novel actions
mental representations
18 months- 2 years internal depictions of objects or events, deferred imitation
goal- directed
coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems
object permanence
understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
deferred imitation
remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
social contexts contribute to cognitive development
Zone of Proximal Development
tasks a child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help, scaffolding
Three Theories of Language Development
B.F. Skinner (Behaviorist), Noam Chomsky (Nativist), Interactionist
Behaviorist
Language is learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation
Nativist
inborn language acquisition (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language
Interactionist
inner capacities and environment work together, social context is important
First speech sounds
cooing (vowel like noises)
babbling (repeat consonant- vowel comb.)
Joint attention
child attends to the same object or event as the as the care giver
give and take
ex. pat-a-cake, peekaboo
preverbal gestures
direct adults' attention ex. pointing to cupboard to get a cookie
First words
underextension and overextension
underextension
apply words too narrowly ex. bear
overextension
applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events ex. using car for buses, trains, trucks, and fire engines
Two- word utterances
most children show a steady continuous increase in the rate of word learning through the preschool years. telegraphic speech
telegraphic speech
focus on high content words, omitting smaller, less important ones
lateralization
specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain