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30 terms

Quiz Questions

Basaltic (mafic) lavas
Contain more iron and magnesium than rhyolitic (felsic) lavas
Which national park in the United States is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 630,000 years ago
Whether an eruption will primarily produce lava flows or pyroclastic debris is influenced by
All of the above
Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ________________ consist of alternatig layers of tephra (unlithified volcanic debris) and solidified lava
Rhyolitic (felsic) lavas
Do not flow as far from the vent as basalic (mafic) lavas do
Non-violent eruptions characterized by extensive flows of basaltic (mafic) lava are termed
Gases that are abundantly emitted by volcanoes include
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide
Hot-spot volcanoes
All of the above
Sedimentary clasts and grains become rounded primarily during
Bedding in a sedimentary rock refers to
The development of layering within sedimentary rocks
Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during
Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock
Lithified detritus (breakdown products of preexisting rocks) forms which kind of sedimentary rock
The removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop (surface of exposed rock) is called
Physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces which kind of sedimentary rock
A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress at temperatures greater than 200°C, causing clay minerals to grow in a preferred orientation and producing a slate. This is an example of
An earthquake occurs with an epicenter in the town of New Madrid, Missouri, in the interior of the North American Plate. Where might the hypocenter of this earthquake plausibly be found
20 km beneath New Madrid
Body waves include
both S- and P- waves
Compared to low-grade metamorphic rocks, high-grade rocks
Are produced at greater temperatures and pressures
Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of the Earth are termed
Body waves
For a fault with a steep fault plane (closer to vertical than horizontal), when the footwall side moves upward relatively to the hanging wall, the fault is termed
For a fault with a steep fault plane (closer to vertical than horizontal), when the hanging wall side moves upward relatively to the footwall, the fault is termed
Metamorphism may be induced by
All of the above
Spreading peanut butter on bread is an example of
Shear stress
The parent rock subjected to metamorphism
May belong to any of the three primary rock types
The point on the Earth's surface directly above the point where an earthquake occurs is termed the
The preexisting rock which is subsequently altered to form a metamorphic rock is termed a
The region of thermally metamorphosed rock surrounding a cooled pluton is called a(n)
Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are
Quartzite and marble
The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the