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Thirty Years War

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Peace of Westphalia - 1648

The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince-whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist-to choose the established creed of his territory.

Results of Thirty Years War

The Hapsburgs lost power. Germany was divided into many small states.


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Bishop Bossuet

tutor of louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure louis' ideal of absolute monarchy

Divine Right of Kings

the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God

Louis XIV

king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)

Cardinal Richelieu

(1624-1642) French Cardinal and politician responsible for instituting absolutist practices in France.


holder of a public administrative office

Cardinal Mazarin

This was the man who successes Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies (1642 - 61)


Series of peasant revolts in France; gained their name from a child's slingshot because both did no real damage ; held by Mazarin


Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.


a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue


educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution

Royal Indebtedness



German state which led the unification movement and was the most powerful portion of the newly-created Germany.

Peter the Great

(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.


adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture

Westernizers versus Slavophiles


St. Petersburg

Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden


site of battle in which Peter's revamped army defeats Charles' army (1709)

Dutch Golden Age

Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry.

Stadholder vs. Republicanism


English Constitution

not written or fixed set of unchangeable rules, general sense of way things were done, power distributed among KIng, aristocracy, and commoners, colonists wanted something in writing

Charles I

son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland

Monarchy vs. Constitutionalism


English Civil War

This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished

Oliver Cromwell

English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)

Roundheads and Cavaliers

These were the two sides of the English civil war. The Roundheads were the Puritan supporters of the Parliament and the Cavaliers were the supporters of Charles I

Charles II and the Restoration

restored the Anglican Church of England -religious TOLERENCE -good relations w/ parliaments -sign Petition of Rights and Habeus Corpus Act


The Tories were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution.


This political party favored Parliament over the crown

James II

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange

Glorious Revolution

In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

Toleration Act

This guaranteed religious freedom to almost all Protestants in England under the monarchy of William and Mary.

Prime Minister

the person who is head of state (in several countries)


the capital and largest city of England

Christopher Wren

English architect who designed St. Paul's Cathedral in London

Thomas Hobbes

Social Contract to soceity. Agree to do certain things in society and we will get certain rewards for doing it; thinkers from England who lived during the English Civil War

Leviathan 1651

Thomas Hobbes; argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign

John Locke

This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights

2nd Treatise of Government

written by John Locke, natural rights, "life, liberty, and property" (1680)

Maria Theresa

Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society


elaborate an extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century


first major composer of opera in the Baroque period


Italian sculptor and architect of the Baroque period in Italy


Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus


Dutch painter renowned for his use of light (1632-1675)


French classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.

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