Upgrade to remove ads
Basal Ganglia & Dizziness
Terms in this set (15)
Basal ganglia consists of?
striatum (caudate and putamen), globus pallidus,
substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus
Pathophys of Parkinsons?
progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the
substantia nigra causes less "direct pathway" inhibition and more "indirect pathway"
stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm)
Pathophys of hemiballismus? Huntington's disease?
- In hemiballismus, destruction of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) lessens
stimulation of the GPm, and thus lowers GPm output (Fig. IC).
- In Huntington's disease,
loss of "indirect pathway" putaminal neurons to the lateral globus pallidus (GPl)
increases inhibition of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which lessens stimulation of the
GPm, and lowers GPm output (Fig. I D), which causes choreoathetosis.
`Etiologies of Parkinsonism?
- use of dopamine antagonist medication,
- toxic exposure to manganese or carbon dioxide,
- mUltiple ischemic infarctions of the basal ganglia.
Primary clinical signs of Parkinson's disease?
- resting tremor,
- impaired postural reflexes
eosinophilic, cytoplasmic inclusions
Role of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor in Parkinson tx?
Plasma levodopa levels can be further increased by taking a catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor like entacapone, which smoothes out
some of the undesirable motor fluctuations
Role of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type
B inhibitor like selegiline in Parkinson tx?
The beneficial motor effects of dopamine
itself can be extended if its catabolism is reduced by a monoamine oxidase (MAO) type
Non medical tx options of Parkinsons?
a stereotactic surgical lesion (pallidotomy) could be accurately placed in the medial globus pallidus
(GPm), thereby counteracting its increased inhibition of the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic
motor nuclei (Fig. I B). A safer means of achieving the same effect on the GPm is to
insert an electrode into the subthalamic nucleus (STN), inhibiting it by means of
repetitive electrical stimulations from a programmable pacemaker-like device. This
technique has been loosely called "deep brain stimulation."
Xtics of vertigo from acute labrynthits?
Vertigo may be very intense and disabling,
as in acute labyrinthitis, where there may be nausea, vomiting, and inability to stand or
Presentation of Meniere's disease?
Recurrent, subacute attacks of vertigo, deafness and
Presentation of vertigo 2/2 TIA?
diplopia, blindness, dysarthria, or ataxia.
When syncope occurs independently of patient activity, should be considered?
cardiac arrhythmias or heart block
How to exclude dizziness or vertigo from a subclavian steal
checking the blood pressure in both arms
Dix Hallpike maneuver in BPPV pt produces what finding?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Neuropathy, Myopathy and Neuromuscular d/o's
Lumbar puncture & Neurological emergencies
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Neuroscience II: Basal Ganglia
Basal ganglia and movement disorders
CM: Movement Disorders Part I
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Occ Safety and Health EOHS Midterm
Day 1 Part 3