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16 terms

epidemiology

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Epidemiology
study of the occurence,distribution,and determinants of health and disease in a population
Epidemiologist
traces the spread of disease to identify its origin and mode of transmission
Epidemic
the occurance of a disease in an unusually high number of individuals in a population at the same time
Pandemic
world-wide epidemic- widely distributed
Endemic
disease constantly present, usually at low incidence, in a population.As long as endemic lasts, the few infected people are called reservoirs
Incidence
the number of cases of an individual disease in a population in a given time period. Provides a record of new cases of a disease.
Prevalence
the total number of new and exisiting disease cases reported in a population in a given time period. Indicates total disease burden in a population
Sporadic
cases of disease may occur when individual cases are recorded in geographically seperated areas, implying that the incidents are not related
Outbreak
a number of cases are observed, usually in relatively short period of time, in an area previously experiencing only sporadic cases of the disease
Subclinical Infections
diseased individuals who show no symptoms or only mild symptoms
Carrier
subclinical infected individuals are frequently carriers of a particular disease
Mortality
incidence of death in a population
Morbidity
incidence of disease in a population and includes both fatal and nonfatal dieases
Resevoirs
sites in which viable infectious agents remain and from which infection of individuals may occur. May be animate or inanimate
Zoonosis
a dieases that primarily infects animals, but is occasionall transmitted to humans
Saprophytic
living on dead matter