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The line in a ray diagram that shows the direction of the barrier and is drawn at a right angle or perpendicular to the barrier
angle of reflection
the angle between a reflected ray and a line perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence
a reflection produced by a smooth surface in which parallel lights rays are reflected in parallel
a flat, smooth surface from which light is reflected by regular reflection, producing a virtual image that is the same size as the object, has the same orientation and is the same distance from the mirror as the object
a luminous or illuminated source of light rays that are the be reflected by a mirrored surface
the combination of image points in a plane mirror from which the reflected object seems to originate
the image formed of diverging light rays; is always on the opposite side of the mirror from the object
a mirror that reflects light from its inwardly curving surface and can produce either an upright, virtual image or an inverted, real image
a straight line perpendicular to the surface of a mirror that divides the mirror in half
the point where incident light rays that are parallel to the principal axis converge after reflecting from the mirror
an inverted optical image that is smaller than the object and is formed by the converging of light rays
the image defect of a spherical mirror that does not allow parallel light rays far from the principal axis to converge at the focal point, and produces an image that is fuzzy, not sharp
a mirror that reflects light from its outwardly curving surface and produces an upright, reduced, virtual image
index of refraction
for a medium, is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium
snell's law of refraction
states that the product if the index of refraction of a medium and the sine of the angle of incidence equals the product of the index of refraction of a second medium and the sine of the angle of refraction
the certain angle of incidence in which the refracted light ray lies along the boundary between two media
total internal refraction
occurs when light traveling through an area with a higher index of refraction to an area with a lower index of refraction hits a country at an angle that exceeds the critical angel and all light reflects back into the area with the higher index of refraction
the separation of white light into a spectrum of colors by such means as a bass prism or water droplets in the atmosphere
a piece of transparent material, such as glass or plastic, that is used to focus light and form an image
a converging lens, thicker at its center than at its edges, that refracts parallel light rays so the rays meet at a point when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; can produce a smaller, inverted, real image, or a larger, upright, virtual image
a diverging lens, thinner at its middle than its edges, that spread out light rays passing through it when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; produces a smaller, virtual, upright image
thin lens equation
states that the inverse of the focal length of a spherical lens equals the sum of the inverses of the image position and the object position (1/f= 1/di + 1/do)
a vision defect in which a person cannot see distant objects because images are focused in front of the retina, can be corrected with a concave lens
a vision defect in which a person cannot see close objects clearly because images are formed behind the retina, can be corrected with a convex lens
explain why light bends when it passes from one medium to another, and relate this to snell's law of refraction
understand how ray diagrams can be used to locate images formed by plane, concave, and convex mirrors
total internal refraction
when light strikes the boundary of a medium with a lower index of refraction at an angle so great that there is no refracted ray, _________ occurs
snells law of refraction
the relationship of the angle of incidence to the angle of refraction is stated in ____
the ___ describes an angle of incidence at which a refracted ray lies along the boundary of a substance
thin lens equation
the ___ relates the focal length of a spherical thin lens to the object position and image position
a transparent refracting device that is thinner in the middle than at the edges is a(n) _______
a transparent refracting device that is thicker in the middle than at the edges is a(n) _______
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