Chapter 8: Social Psychology Vocabulary

two or more people who, for longer than a few moments interact with and influence one another and perceive on another as "us."
go-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
Social facilitation
(1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others.
Evaluation apprehension
concern for how others are evaluating us.
Social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
Free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return.
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
Group polarization
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
Social comparison
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself to others.
Pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding.
"the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action."-Irving Janis (1971).
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group.
Task leadership
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals.
Social leadership
leadership that builds teamwork, mediate conflict, and offers support.
Transformational leadership
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significance influence.