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80 terms

BIOL 210 Ch. 9 LearnSmart and Quiz

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thymine and cytosine
the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases found in DNA are
initiation, elongation, termination
order of events in transcription
cytoplasm
bacterial chromosomes are located in the nucleoid region of the
RNA
in the central dogma, DNA encodes __ which encodes protein
translation
during what process is mRNA converted to a protein
amino acid
nucleotide is to nucleic acid as __ __ is to protein.
initiation, elongation, termination
order of events in translation
heredity
another term for genetics - the study of inheritance in living things
amino acids
building blocks of protein
replication
during semiconservative __ the DNA is duplicated prior to binary fission
3'-TAC-5'
which sequence of nucleotides is complementary to the DNA triplet 5'-ATG-3'
codon
the specific sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides that encode a particular amino acid
horizontal gene transfer
transfer of DNA from a source other than the parent organisms
vertical gene transfer
transfer of DNA from parent organisms during reproduction
ribosome
two subunits of the __ compose the site of protein synthesis
amino acids
during translation elongation, peptide bonds form between
adenine and guanine
the purine nitrogenous bases found in DNA
chromosome
a discrete cellular structure composed of a neatly packaged DNA molecule
point
__ mutation involves any substitution of a single nucleotide that does not change the DNA reading frame
mutation
a permanent inheritable alteration in the DNA sequence or content of a cell
mutagen
a chemical or physical agent that induces a change in DNA
DNA polymerase, helicase, ligase
enzymes that function in DNA replication
transformation
recombination method that involves the uptake of free DNA by competent bacterial recipient cells
nucleus
chromosomes are located in the __ of protozoal and fungal cells
AUG
the anticodon for TAC
transcription
the process of decoding DNA into mRNA
operon
an __ in bacteria consists of a regulatory gene, a control region, and structural genes
conjugation
during which method of gene transfer are bacterial cells in direct contact
base
a nitrogen-containing molecule found in DNA and RNA that provides the basis for the genetic code is a nitrogenous __
transformation, conjugation, transduction
methods of gene transfer in bacteria
nucleic acids
genes are made of
phosphodiester
nucleotides are linked by __ bonds and link the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another nucleotide
CAA
one possible anticodon for the tRNA carrying the codon GUU is
phenotype
The expression of genetic traits is the
only found in DNA, not in RNA
Which is incorrect about purines?
mRNA
This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand
RNA polymerase
Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor that blocks _____ from initiating transcription.
Transposons
The jumping of a gene from one location to another is done by
Adenine-thymine rich area
Replication of DNA begins at a(n)
intron
A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for protein is called a/an
semiconservative replication
An original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule
promoter
The nontranscribed region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription is called the
gene
Each _____ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one functional product.
amino acid
Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one
cellular proteins
Structural genes code for
DNA polymerase III
Synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction
transformation
The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is
1 phosphate, 1 nitrogenous base, 1 sugar
Each nucleotide is composed of
insertion
f the wild type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATA ETH EBI GRA T?
Ames
A screening system called the _____ test is used for detecting chemicals with carcinogenic potential.
DNA gyrase
supercoils DNA
Contain codons within their rRNA molecules
The following pertain to ribosomes during protein synthesis except
mutation
A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a(n)
inducible operons
do not have genes turned off by a buildup of end product
nucleotides
The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called
UAA, UAG, UGA
termination codons include
DNA helicase
The enzyme that helps pack DNA into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle is:
codon
The three-base sequence on DNA that codes for an amino acid is called a(n)
transfer RNA
The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called
hydrogen
Base pairs in DNA are held together by _____ bonds
specialized transduction
The development of virulent, toxin-producing bacterial strains due to the presence of a temperate phage can occur in
genome
The _____ is all of the genetic material of a cell.
antiparallel arrangement of DNA
One helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction
template
During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a _____ for synthesis of new DNA strands.
regulator
The operon segment composed of the gene that code for a protein repressor is called the
replication
the duplication of a cell's DNA is called
DNA ligases
which enzyme fills in the spaces between the Okazaki fragments with the correct nucleotides
DNA polymerases
the enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them, and correctly replace them are
replication fork
the site where the old DNA strands separate and new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the
ligase
final sealing of DNA nicks in DNA
DNA polymerase I
removes primer
DNA polymerase III
adding bases to the new DNA chain
RNA polymerase
enzyme process that translate the code of DNA to RNA
mRNA
this molecule is transcribed from the DNA template strand and later translated
CGU
if a codon for alanine is GCA, then the anticodon is
nonsense mutation
a mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a
conjugation
bacterial __ involves a donor cell with a plasmid and a pilus
deletion
which type of mutation leads to a frameshift mutation
RNA DNA
in order for a retrovirus to insert itself into the host's DNA, it must do what?
UAAGGCCU
if the DNA sequence is ATTCCGGA, the mRNA transcript would be