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thymine and cytosine

the pyrimidine nitrogenous bases found in DNA are

initiation, elongation, termination

order of events in transcription


bacterial chromosomes are located in the nucleoid region of the


in the central dogma, DNA encodes __ which encodes protein


during what process is mRNA converted to a protein

amino acid

nucleotide is to nucleic acid as __ __ is to protein.

initiation, elongation, termination

order of events in translation


another term for genetics - the study of inheritance in living things

amino acids

building blocks of protein


during semiconservative __ the DNA is duplicated prior to binary fission


which sequence of nucleotides is complementary to the DNA triplet 5'-ATG-3'


the specific sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides that encode a particular amino acid

horizontal gene transfer

transfer of DNA from a source other than the parent organisms

vertical gene transfer

transfer of DNA from parent organisms during reproduction


two subunits of the __ compose the site of protein synthesis

amino acids

during translation elongation, peptide bonds form between

adenine and guanine

the purine nitrogenous bases found in DNA


a discrete cellular structure composed of a neatly packaged DNA molecule


__ mutation involves any substitution of a single nucleotide that does not change the DNA reading frame


a permanent inheritable alteration in the DNA sequence or content of a cell


a chemical or physical agent that induces a change in DNA

DNA polymerase, helicase, ligase

enzymes that function in DNA replication


recombination method that involves the uptake of free DNA by competent bacterial recipient cells


chromosomes are located in the __ of protozoal and fungal cells


the anticodon for TAC


the process of decoding DNA into mRNA


an __ in bacteria consists of a regulatory gene, a control region, and structural genes


during which method of gene transfer are bacterial cells in direct contact


a nitrogen-containing molecule found in DNA and RNA that provides the basis for the genetic code is a nitrogenous __

transformation, conjugation, transduction

methods of gene transfer in bacteria

nucleic acids

genes are made of


nucleotides are linked by __ bonds and link the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of another nucleotide


one possible anticodon for the tRNA carrying the codon GUU is


The expression of genetic traits is the

only found in DNA, not in RNA

Which is incorrect about purines?


This molecule is synthesized as a copy of a gene on the DNA template strand

RNA polymerase

Gene regulation can involve a protein repressor that blocks _____ from initiating transcription.


The jumping of a gene from one location to another is done by

Adenine-thymine rich area

Replication of DNA begins at a(n)


A sequence of bases on a gene that does not code for protein is called a/an

semiconservative replication

An original parent DNA strand and one newly synthesized DNA strand comprising a new DNA molecule


The nontranscribed region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription is called the


Each _____ is a specific segment of the DNA with the code for production of one functional product.

amino acid

Groups of three consecutive bases along the DNA of a gene have the code for one

cellular proteins

Structural genes code for

DNA polymerase III

Synthesizes new DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction


The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to a live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is

1 phosphate, 1 nitrogenous base, 1 sugar

Each nucleotide is composed of


f the wild type DNA sequence reads THE CAT ATE THE BIG RAT, what type of mutation would change the sequence to THE CAT ATA ETH EBI GRA T?


A screening system called the _____ test is used for detecting chemicals with carcinogenic potential.

DNA gyrase

supercoils DNA

Contain codons within their rRNA molecules

The following pertain to ribosomes during protein synthesis except


A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a(n)

inducible operons

do not have genes turned off by a buildup of end product


The DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called


termination codons include

DNA helicase

The enzyme that helps pack DNA into the cell by coiling the DNA into a tight bundle is:


The three-base sequence on DNA that codes for an amino acid is called a(n)

transfer RNA

The RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis are called


Base pairs in DNA are held together by _____ bonds

specialized transduction

The development of virulent, toxin-producing bacterial strains due to the presence of a temperate phage can occur in


The _____ is all of the genetic material of a cell.

antiparallel arrangement of DNA

One helix strand that runs from the 5' to 3' direction and the other strand runs from the 3' to 5' direction


During replication, each parent DNA strand serves as a _____ for synthesis of new DNA strands.


The operon segment composed of the gene that code for a protein repressor is called the


the duplication of a cell's DNA is called

DNA ligases

which enzyme fills in the spaces between the Okazaki fragments with the correct nucleotides

DNA polymerases

the enzymes that can proofread replicating DNA, detect incorrect bases, excise them, and correctly replace them are

replication fork

the site where the old DNA strands separate and new DNA strands will be synthesized is called the


final sealing of DNA nicks in DNA

DNA polymerase I

removes primer

DNA polymerase III

adding bases to the new DNA chain

RNA polymerase

enzyme process that translate the code of DNA to RNA


this molecule is transcribed from the DNA template strand and later translated


if a codon for alanine is GCA, then the anticodon is

nonsense mutation

a mutation that changes a normal codon to a stop codon is called a


bacterial __ involves a donor cell with a plasmid and a pilus


which type of mutation leads to a frameshift mutation


in order for a retrovirus to insert itself into the host's DNA, it must do what?


if the DNA sequence is ATTCCGGA, the mRNA transcript would be

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