11 terms

fluids, electrolytes, and minerals

isotonic contraction: 0.9 nacl
na and h20 loss

SE: pulmonary edema (if too fast)
Hypertonic contraction: 11% nacl

5% dextrose
loss of h20
Hypotonic contraction: 3% nacl
loss of na (concentration should be about 130)

SE: monitor for fluid overload
resp acidosis (hypoventilation): sodium bicarb (severe)
with oxygen and ventilation
resp alkalosis (hpervenilation): co2 rebreath
sedative can be used
metabolic alkalosis: NAcl and Kcl
due to: Gastric loss, sodium bicard excess, hypoventilation, incrased renal excretion of bicarb, accumulation of organic acids
metabolic acidosis: sodium bicarb
due to: Chronic renal failure, diarrheam lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, aspirin and methanol poisoning

Caution: infuse careful rapid conversion dangerous
Hypokalemia (< 3.5): Kcl, kdur, micro k
SE: PO: GI irritation(especially not sustained release) rare: hyperkalema
IV:Hyperkalemia, renal failure, ECG changes
Hyperkalemia (>5): stop diet K and K sparing drugs, suport cardiac troubles, use glucose and insulin infusion, correct acidosis with sodiumbicarb
at 8-9: cardaic arrest and death
hypomagnesemia ( < 1.3): IV magnesium (frank)

milk of magnesia
causes: Diarrhea, hemodialysis, kidney dz, prolonved Iv feed


SE: Neuromuscular blockade, resp paralysis,
***calcium gluconate
Hypermagnesemia: AV block
Hypermagnesemia (> 2.1): Calcium gluconate
cause: : renal isufficiency, hypotension, sedation, ecg changes


Resp paralysis at 12-15
Cardiac arrest at 25