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AP Psychology Unit 11 Vocabulary
by Jacqueline Chau
Terms in this set (35)
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
in psychology, grit is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ration of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100, with scores assigned to relative performance above or below average
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
the symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
the extent to which a test yields consistence results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. (see also content validity and predictive validity)
the extent to which a test samples to behavior that is of interest
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (also called criterion-related validity)
a group of people from a given time period
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life. (Formerly referred to as mental retardation)
a condition mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
a man that believed we have one general intelligence. He granted that people often have special abilities that stand out and he helped develop factor analysis.
L. L. Thurstone
He gave 56 different tests to people and mathematically identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities.
He viewed intelligence as multiple intelligences that come in different packages.
He agreed that there is more to success than traditional intelligence and also agrees with Gardner's idea of multiple intelligences. He proposed a triarchic theory of three, not eight, intelligences.
an English scientist that had a fascination with measuring human traits. He wondered if it was possible to measure natural ability.
A man that begun assuming that all children follow the same course of intellectual development but that some develop more rapidly. To measure mental age, he theorized that mental aptitude is a general capacity that shows up in various ways.
A Stanford University professor that found that the Paris-developed questions and age norms worked poorly with California schoolchildren. He extended the upper end of the test's range from teenagers to superior adults.
a psychologist that created what is now the most widely used individual intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS).
a psychologist that believed intelligence is biologically set and unchanging can lead to a "fixed mindset."
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